Ideally, presidential election campaigns in various countries in the world is undoubtedly an ugly affair that may be seen as cutthroat undertaking, more so in countries where two opposing factions command almost fifty percent support a piece. Language plays crucial role during campaigns since in order for politicians to hammer their points home, language becomes central. The manner in which language is used may depict some elements of impoliteness as a means to denigrating perceived opponents; in which case therefore, language ends up linking interlocutors in a dynamic interaction. During campaigns politicians rarely adhere to the natural principles of communication prompting speakers to employ deliberate impolite language with one sole agenda; to demean or disparage “the foe”. Phenomena of impoliteness in Kenya political context during presidential campaigns has always been seen presenting itself back to back if presidential campaigns five months before 2007 and 2013 elections are analyzed by narrowing down to William Ruto’s utterances in two major Kenya’s local dailies namely The Daily Nation and The standard. This study intends to investigate impoliteness strategies that the aforesaid politician employed in order to outwit politicians from the opposing front with an aim to persuading voters. The study discusses types of language impoliteness found dominantly in William Ruto’s utterances in the run up to the two general elections. The study draws on Culpeper’s (2011) “Model of Impoliteness Formulae” with a view to comprehending the extent to which this politician used impolite language.
The paper shows the relationship between natural disasters and income per capita at Mekong Delta river. Fixed Effects Model (FEM) was used to analyze panel data of 13 provinces from 2012 to 2018. The results show that natural disasters reduce 5.3% of per capita income for the province affected by natural disasters. In addition, other factors such as infrastructure, trade and provincial competitiveness index (PCI) also have a positive impact on per capita income. From the research results, some policy implications are proposed to minimize the negative impact of natural disasters on per capita income in Vietnam