(March-April - 2020)

The Conformity of Outsourced Employee Competence in Animal Feed Company
Siti Rochaeni, Dini Aprilia
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
One of the industrial sectors that needed a competitive advantage from the company to continued to survive in the fierce competition was the animal feed industry, especially chicken feed. The domestic animal feed industry plays a very important role in supporting the livestock industry in providing the availability of consumption of meat and its derivative products for Indonesian. Animal feed contributes around 70% of the total cost of livestock production. To meet the needs of employees or human resources, companies need to recruit through the outsourcing workforce. The use of outsourced labor could save company expenses, but could also hinder or reduce company productivity. The purpose of this studied was to determine the conformity of outsourcing employees' core competencies, conformity of the field of outsourcing employees, and alternative solutions that could be recommended to improve the competencies of outsourced employees. The data consists of interest data and capability data, using a Likert scale with a range of 1 to 5, using the competency gaped analysis and the IPA (Importance-Performance Analysis) matrix. The results showed that the core competencies of outsourced employees and the field competencies of outsourced employees were not as expected by the company.
Author Keywords:- Conformity, Core Competencies, Field Competencies, Importance

Emerging Technology and Future of Supply Chain (Procurement and Logistics Management) in Pakistan
Mr. Sohail Ayoub, Mr. Muhammad Waqas, Mr. Muhammad Arshid Khan, Mr. Muhammad Ali Shah
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The emerging technology has revolutionaries all the business processes. The emerging technology such as AI, block chain, VR/AR, RFID uses improving the efficiency and accuracy of the different parts and activities of the supply chain management. The technology is helping the organization in reducing and optimizing the inventory level, information sharing between partners, smart contracting, traceability and visibility, pace of the processes, and more transparency to the processes. Pakistan after the development of the CPEC will be playing a hub for supply chain between China, Gulf countries and Europe. To maximize the benefits from the central hub for business activities, the government as well as private organization needs to improve their business processes by implementation of the emerging technology. Pakistan is facing problem in maturity of the technology as well as lack of skilled human resource to operate the technology at front end of the business processes. Government is investing more in encouraging the research in implementation of emerging technology in the country. The merging technology is the only key to avail all the opportunities that will be coming from the CPEC in future.

Author Keywords:- Emerging technology, supply chain, logistics management, procurement, Pakistan

Modality and its Functions in Interpersonal Relationships in Lecturers’ Labour Protests in Kenya in 2017
Jackline Bonareri Arege, Margaret Barasa, Francis Kariithi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Protesting or dissent has been a common phenomenon globally for many years and most countries worldwide have experienced at least one type of protest or another. One way that people have found to be beneficial in communicating their grievances is by protesting where language has been found to be a powerful tool. This paper specifically explores the use of modality and its functions in interpersonal relations. Critical Discourse Analysis theoretical framework [1] and Systemic Functional Grammar [2], were used to analyses data. Four genres of protest namely: slogans, banners, press conferences and placards were studied. Data was collected by downloading information from Kenya’s Daily Nation, the Standard’s news print media websites, You Tube, National Television and Citizen TV station. 84 texts were purposively sampled and analysed descriptively. The findings revealed that through modality, the protestors revealed their interpersonal relationship with their employer, vented their feelings and demanded for change in the educational as well as the judicial sector.

Author Keywords:- Protest, genres, modality, stakeholders, policies, agreements

Youth Despair in the Post-colonial Novel: A Study of Meja Mwangi’s Kill Me Quick and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross
Alphonse Dorien Makosso
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This paper examines the complex nature of youths’ despair experience in the post-independence African countries as contextualized in Meja Mwangi’s Kill Me Quick and Ngũgĩ Wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the cross. This plight based on the exploitation and all kinds of abuses perpetrated by those elites who were meant to help their countrymen enjoy the fruits of the freedom they fought and shed blood for. This study shows how, in the considered narratives, these unemployed youths of both sexes, longing for better living conditions, took refuge in cities where their plight worsens so that they unfortunately slipped into a whirlpool of crime. A resignation which brings about suicide attempts among the youths.
Author Keywords:- Contextualization - Disillusioned hero- Exploitation - Unemployment - Youth Despair - Resignation

The Role of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in Improving Customer services: An Empirical Study in Cairo Amman Bank
Yousef AL-Safadi, Mohammad fathi AlMaaitah
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aimed at identifying Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in improving customer services (responding time, customer experience and product diversity) in the Cairo Amman Bank (CAB). The authors employed a predictive-descriptive approach to identify the level of CRM at CAB. Male and female employees at CAB (No.327) participated in the study. A questionnaire prepared to measure the role of CRM in improving customer services was implemented. Means, standard deviations, multiple linear regression and 1-Way ANOVA analyses were used to examine the data. CRM from the perspective of CAB employees scored a high level at overall test. Customer services level from the perspective of the employees at CAB and its dimensions scored high. The predictive model of CRM and customer services from employee’s perspective was statistically significant. Based on these results, the authors recommend ACB to take more interest in improving its CRM to obtain customers satisfaction by encouraging customers to provide the company with feedback that improves the services provided to them.
Author Keywords:- Customer Relationship Management, customer services, responding time, product diversity, customer experience

Assertiveness and its Relationship with Self Esteem: An Empirical Study of Senior Managers in a Sri Lankan Bank
H.H.D.P.J. Opatha, H.H.D.N.P. Opatha
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
A systematic empirical study was carried out with regard to assertiveness and self-esteem owing to little research done, contextual gap and intellectual curiosity. Objectives of the study were (1) to explore and describe the degree of assertiveness of senior managers in the organization under study; (2) to explore and describe the degree of self-esteem of senior managers in the organization under study; and (3) to investigate whether the degree of self-esteem of senior managers relates positively and significantly to the degree of assertiveness of senior managers in the organization under study. An alternative hypothesis about the relationship between the two constructs was formulated based on some observations, logical beliefs of the researchers, and the two general theories, i.e. The Successful Performance Model and The Failure-Based Model both of which were developed by Harris and Hartman (2006)[1].129 senior managers who are middle managers working in a large highly successful bank were utilized as respondents. The instruments utilized to measure the two constructs were good in terms of content validity and internal reliability. The empirical findings revealed that Sri Lankan senior managers in the bank under study possess high assertiveness, high self-esteem, and degree of self-esteem and degree of assertiveness is positively and significantly related.
Author Keywords:- Assertiveness, Self Esteem, Senior Managers

The Effect of Non-Performing Loan (NPL), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) and Net Interest Margin (NIM) on Financial Performance (ROA) With Car as Intervening Variables on Go Public Commercial Banks in Indonesia and Listed on BEI Period 2014-2018
Liyah Liyana, Emmy Indrayani
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Financial performance is a picture of the achievement of the company's success can be interpreted as the results that have been achieved for various activities that have been carried out. Profitability is a ratio to assess a company's ability to seek profits. This ratio also provides a measure of the effectiveness of a company's management. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of NPL, LDR, and NIM on financial performance (ROA) through intervening variables (CAR). The analytical method used is Multiple Linear Analysis, which was previously performed Descriptive Analysis Test, Classical Assumption Test (Normality Test, Heteroscedasticity Test, Multicollinearity Test, Linearity Test), Path Analysis then continued with Hypothesis Test which is processed using SPSS version program 26. The results showed that NPL and LDR did not affect ROA and NIM affected ROA. NPL and LDR do not affect CAR, NIM affects CAR. CAR affects ROA on commercial banks listed on the IDX. CAR is able to mediate NPL against ROA, however CAR cannot mediate LDR and NIM to ROA at Commercial Banks listed on the IDX. Simultaneously all independent variables (NPL, LDR, and NIM) are influenced by CAR Variables of 3.1%. The rest (100% -3.1%) is explained by other variables not included in this study.
Author Keywords:- Non Performing Loan, Loan to Deposit Ratio, Net Interest Margin, financial performance

Figurative Language in Muigai Wa Njoroge “Mŭri Mŭrŭrŭ” (Bitter Root) Song
Francis Kariithi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The study begins by positing one critical aspect of language as observed by Finegan et al, (1992) who cites that, one of the functions of language is to express thought; in other words, language is used to communicate wills or feelings with others. While quoting Jacobson (1960); Kamaliah (2013) opined that language serves an expressive or emotive function and that such expressive function can be found, for instance, in song lyrics. Kamaliah (ibid) goes on to say that in the song lyrics, the composers can freely express their feelings with their hearers. It is worth to note that, it is against this backdrop that this paper envisages to analyze figurative language employed by Muigai Wa Njoroge song “Mŭri Mŭrŭrŭ” (bitter root) that was composed in the wake of the Building Bridges Initiative (hereafter BBI) that found its way in Kenya political arena in the culmination of the handshake fiasco within Kenya political echelon. The role of language is undeniably very critical in all sphere of human life since it is a system of conventional spoken or written symbol that is employed by people for communicating with one another. The nature of language found in songs is meant to communicate to the audience by conveying his voice so that people can decode his feelings and that of the other members of the public. Songs tagging varying themes ranging from love, social, political and others expressing our feelings; in essence, as an aspect of literature; songs play fundamental role that is hinged on the nature of language that plays out. According to Meyer (1997), who is quoted by Arifah (2016); observes that, literature happens to be a term used to describe written texts marked by careful use of language, which includes features such as creative metaphors, well-turned phrases, elegant syntax, rhyme, alliteration, which are aesthetically read or intended by the author to be aesthetically read and are deliberately somewhat open in interpretation. As an act of singing; song as piece of music with words that are sung has a function to express the thoughts and feelings in which two crucial elements such as lyrics and music play out. With the advent of the Building Bridges Initiative (BBI) in Kenya a number of artists in Kenya such a Muigai Wa Njoroge have opted to compose varying songs which may be seen as vehicles of conveying connotative information regarding the much hyped (BBI) initiative with varying agenda of either demeaning the process or ameliorating the proponents’ move. In view of the aforesaid; the study intends to analyze figurative language that the aforementioned Kikuyu musician maestro employed in his hit song “Mŭri Mŭrŭrŭ” (Bitter Root) of 2020. Muigai wa Njoroge is among the most successful and popular Kenyan musicians. He was Born in Lari Division, Kiambu District in present day Kiambu County. He is a Gospel musician from Kenya with a sizable number of Songs Featuring on Afrika Lyrics. The song that put him on the lime light was ‘Kigutha’ (denoting catapult) which had an anti-AIDs message. His latest hit is “Mŭri Mŭrŭrŭ” (Bitter Root) which he composed in the wake of the BBI popularization rallies across Kenya targeting the Kikuyu community as a whole with the sole message on the importance of reclaiming their unity which is in the verge of disintegration.
Author Keywords:- Figurative Language, “Mŭri Mŭrŭrŭ” (Bitter Root), Song Lyrics

Objection (S) in Response to Discoveries and the Prohibition of Extraneous Matters in Affidavits in Nigeria: A Comparative Review
Salmanu Mohammed Rilwanu, Dewan Dauda Umaru, Amana Mohammed Yusuf
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Discoveries are means through which parties to civil actions strengthen their cases, by way of eliciting admissions of fact or inquiring about documents from the opposing party to the case at the close of pleadings and before commencement of trial. In response to Interrogatories [facts] or Discovery of Documents [documents], the interrogated party, under the rules, is required to answer on oath by way of an affidavit. Though an interrogated party is not obliged to answer irrelevant or scandalous questions, the rules of most High courts in Nigeria provide that objections in such a case be raised in the affidavit in answer, even though the rules in another part, also provide that the rules on affidavits apply to the rules. The law is trite that extraneous matters; such as objections and conclusions should not be included in affidavits. Sections 79 to 90 of the Evidence Act, 2011, (Nigeria) are instructive here. A critical examination was undertaken on the laws relating to Discoveries under some of the High Court civil procedure rules in Nigeria (Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Kano and Lagos States) and the law on deposition in affidavits. It was found that such objections did not only offend the rule against extraneous matters in affidavits, but were indeed unsuitable given the traditional role of affidavits. This paper recommends that jurisdictions like Nigeria, the United States and Canada where response to interrogatory/discovery is made by affidavit or deposition, can draw inspirations from the United Kingdom, where the rules stipulate for disclosure statement, which this article suggests can be used in addition to the answer on oath to discoveries to accommodate such objections.
Author Keywords:-

A Reassessment of the Rising Tide of Suicide in Contemporary Nigerian Society: A Kantian Interrogative
Ogabo Godwin Adinya PhD, ADIDI, Dokpesi Timothy
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This paper undertakes a reassessment of the rising incidence of suicide contemporary Nigerian society in the light of Immanuel Kant’s proposition. Throughout history, suicide has evoked an astonishingly wide range of reactions ranging from bafflement, dismissal, heroic glorification, sympathy, anger, to moral and religious condemnation - but it has never been uncontroversial. Suicide is now an object of multidisciplinary scientific study with sociology, anthropology, psychology and psychiatry each providing important insights into suicide. Nonetheless, many of the most controversial questions surrounding suicide are philosophical. For philosophers, suicide raises a host of conceptual, moral, and psychological questions. Among these questions are: What makes a person's behaviour suicidal? What motivates such behaviour? Is suicide morally permissible, or even morally required in some extraordinary circumstances? Is suicidal behaviour rational? Considering the rising spate of suicide in Nigeria in the last decade, this study seeks to employ the Kantian proposition to investigate the causes and consequences of suicide in Nigeria with a view to proffering solutions. Kant maintains that an agent who takes his own life acts in violation of the moral law; suicide is therefore totally wrong. He maintains that killing oneself when life goes ill is wrong. It is this Kantian position that this paper uses to reassess the rationality of the rising spate of suicide in Nigeria. The study employed the qualitative research approach by relying mainly on secondary sources for data. Thereafter, the expository and critical methods were used for analysis. The paper surmised that despite the arguments for and against the morality of suicide, a deeper reflection reveals that suicide is a crime against humanity and degrades human dignity, and should be dissuaded.
Author Keywords:- Kantian, Nigeria, Suicide, morality, rationality

Maritime Piracy and Unlawful Acts against Safety of Lives at Sea: Inimical and Antithetical to Fundamental Human Rights and the Rule of Law
A.K. Mgbolu
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The protection of human rights through the justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of law. The protection of human rights have been acknowledged to a very large extent in most civilized or developed countries of the world because of its necessity and global acceptance not just for the safety and sanctity of life. The universality of human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in the very nature of human beings just for its reflection. Today, the wave of economic globalization has given rise to increasing spread and sophistication of various inimical activities and acts that negate the lofty ideals of the rule of law and protection of human lives at sea. The crossborder movement of ships with people and cargo, merchandise, investment and finance that encourage urbanization and globalization has been in most recent times threatened by piracy and armed robbery at sea, torture and various clandestine, unholy attitudes that are antithetic to fundamental human rights and has opened door for global criminal economy to flourish. Among the questions this paper seeks to address are, what is the link between trans-border or sea crime and globalization? What is piracy (Hosti-Humanis)? Why is piracy targeted at the sea..? Why does it occur most in Nigeria and some countries in the West African sub-region? What are the economic benefits from the sea that are being threatened by piracy and other crimes? And what efforts are being made by Nigeria and the West African sub-region including international cooperation’s to address the issue? Above all, to construct the way forward to arrest the ugly situation.
Author Keywords:- Maritime, Piracy, Unlawful, Inimical, fundamental Human Rights, Antithetical.

A Review on the Educational Welfare System of Chinese College Students
Ding Hengyan, Xie Yingdong, Fu Guifang
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The higher education welfare system is highly related to its politics and economy. Through combing the history and state quo of the welfare system of Chinese colleges and universities, this article finds that with the continuous improvement of Chinese market economy system, the educational welfare system of colleges and universities in China has correspondingly enhanced. With the continuous improvement of Chinese higher education welfare system, remarkable results have been achieved. Of course, there is still a lot of room for reform in Chinese higher education welfare system. This paper discusses the direction of Chinese higher education welfare system future reform from expanding its coverage, enriching its objective demands, constructing a fair distribution mechanism, and diversifying its content forms.
Author Keywords:- Higher education; Educational welfare system; Grants; Scholarship.

To What Use is Philosophy in an Age of Science and Technology?
Uwalaka Jude .N (Phd)
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Philosophy as a discipline of studies and as a form of knowledge is facing a lot of challenges today, even in the university systems and institutions where some have marginalized it or consigned it to the realm of general studies. The erstwhile mother of the sciences does not seem to have the dignity among the sciences. Since respectability has today been reserved to the sciences that appear to have more practical impart specifically the empirical sciences and technology. Thus, in this age of manufacturing and industry, men are either cynical about any form of knowledge that is merely speculative and does not talk of bread and butter issues or appear not to have any economic potency. No wonder, a book in French was titled “A Quoi Bon La Philosophy” (To What Good Is Philosophy). The goal of this article is to respond to this modern cynicism and interrogation on the utility of philosophy. It will be our contention that any knowledge and learning without the philosophical ingredient suffers fundamental impoverishment. Furthermore, that the empirical sciences and technology require a discipline like philosophy for their foundational legitimation.
Author Keywords:- Philosophical Relevance, conscience, meaningful existence, Cultural Development, Original Thinking, Transferable skills.