(May-June, 2020)

The Analysis of Sharia Legitimacy of Sharia Bank By Using Disclosure Index
Siti Jamilah , Riskayanto
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The challenge that emerge in sharia banking in increasing market growth and share is to improve operational services to customers, banks should be legitimize their willingness by showing banks have been operating in accordance with Islamic principles, bank performance not only consists of economic performance, but also in accordance with corporate governance standards and maintain adherence to sharia. This research intends to analyze the disclosure of sharia bank performance in showing its legitimacy as a sharia based bank. The objects of this research are Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), Bank Muamalat Indonesia (BMI), Bank Negara Indonesia Syariah (BNIS), Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah (BRIS), and Bank Mega Syariah (BMS) with the annual data from 2014 to 2018. The results of this research was the average score of quality disclosure of Islamic Banks in Indonesia from the highest to the lowest such as BMI (83%), BSM (82%), BNIS (81%), BMS (79%), and BRIS (78%) ). The conclusion in this research is the disclosure of the highest index is Bank Muamalat Indonesia in the 2014-2018 period.

Author Keywords:- Disclosure Index, Islamic Principle, Legitimacy, Sharia Banking, bank performance.

Aspects of Impoliteness during 2007 and 2013 Presidential Campaigns in Kenya
Francis Kariithi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Ideally, presidential election campaigns in various countries in the world is undoubtedly an ugly affair that may be seen as cutthroat undertaking, more so in countries where two opposing factions command almost fifty percent support a piece. Language plays crucial role during campaigns since in order for politicians to hammer their points home, language becomes central. The manner in which language is used may depict some elements of impoliteness as a means to denigrating perceived opponents; in which case therefore, language ends up linking interlocutors in a dynamic interaction. During campaigns politicians rarely adhere to the natural principles of communication prompting speakers to employ deliberate impolite language with one sole agenda; to demean or disparage “the foe”. Phenomena of impoliteness in Kenya political context during presidential campaigns has always been seen presenting itself back to back if presidential campaigns five months before 2007 and 2013 elections are analyzed by narrowing down to William Ruto’s utterances in two major Kenya’s local dailies namely The Daily Nation and The standard. This study intends to investigate impoliteness strategies that the aforesaid politician employed in order to outwit politicians from the opposing front with an aim to persuading voters. The study discusses types of language impoliteness found dominantly in William Ruto’s utterances in the run up to the two general elections. The study draws on Culpeper’s (2011) “Model of Impoliteness Formulae” with a view to comprehending the extent to which this politician used impolite language.

Author Keywords:- Impoliteness theory, Impoliteness Strategies, Model of Impoliteness Formulae

Analyses the Impacts of Natural Disasters on Income Per Capita in Mekong Delta River
Nguyen Khac Hieu
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The paper shows the relationship between natural disasters and income per capita at Mekong Delta river. Fixed Effects Model (FEM) was used to analyze panel data of 13 provinces from 2012 to 2018. The results show that natural disasters reduce 5.3% of per capita income for the province affected by natural disasters. In addition, other factors such as infrastructure, trade and provincial competitiveness index (PCI) also have a positive impact on per capita income. From the research results, some policy implications are proposed to minimize the negative impact of natural disasters on per capita income in Vietnam

Author Keywords:----------------

The Impact of Community Participation on Community Development in Zambia: Case Study Nsanjika Area of Nsingo Ward in Luangeni Constituency of the Eastern Province
Blessing Mataka, Peter R Nguluwe
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study was aimed at assessing the impact of community participation on community Development in Zambia in general and Nsanjika area of Nsingo ward in Luangeni constituency of the Eastern province in particular. The research was prompted by the gap that has been prevalent in the provision of services by government this gap exists between ‘what people need and what government provides. This gap is brought about by lack of collaboration between government and the people for which services are being provided, the aim of this study was to find ways which this gap can be closed and the impact the involvement of the people has on their development.
Author Keywords:- Community Development, Community Participation

American National Security and Impeachment of Presidents: Westfailure in the ‘Temple of Democracy’
Onyemaechi Augustine Eke Ph.D
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The Democrats-Republican political contestation over articles of impeachment of U.S. Executive President Donald John Trump was seemingly drifting from crisis to Westfailure of Westphalia. Under the Westphalia, America sees itself with the responsibility to protect Western-style democracy. Americans see the United States as the ‘temple of democracy’ and a ‘city on the hills’, which every one observes as a model. Situating the contestations between Democrats and Republicans on the debate and vote on impeachment of President Donald John Trump, 18 December 2019, based on two articles: abuse of power and obstruction of congressional investigation side-by-side with two impeachment bouts of 1868 and 1974 in the U.S., leads one to thinking that democracy poses internal threat to American security and thus justifies the study of the United States as a global model of democracy.
Author Keywords:- America, Westphalia, democracy, impeachment, national security

Iran-Pakistan Relation: Impact on CPEC
Sahibzada Muhammad Usman
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This article introduces the strategic significance of CPEC and Iran-Pakistan relations in the Baluchistan region, regional security, and armed forces. Because of the lack of trust between Iran and Pakistan, it is impossible to strengthen ties by expanding economic development and cooperation. The relationship between Pakistan and Iran has always been a long-standing problem in the historical context of the region, and because of China's CPEC plan in this region, the resolution of this problem has become particularly important. Due to separatists, terrorism, and armed control of the region by some powerful countries, the Baluchistan areas of Iran and Pakistan have been idle. At present, local Chinese and their economic corridors are promoting economic development in the region and realizing China's trade routes in accordance with their pearl plan. In the course of the research, several variables will be used to explain the factors that affect Pakistan-Iran relations.
Author Keywords:- Chabahar, Gwadar, Iran-Pakistan, China, America.

Rural Women Perceptions of Digital Media Influence on Awareness Creation about Maternal Health Information in Minna, Nigeria
Abdulhameed Kayode Agboola, Tabitha Waziri Ahmed
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study has investigated the perception of digital media influence in awareness creation on maternal health amongst rural women in Minna, Nigeria. Survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of 384 respondents randomly drawn from a population of 96,886. The response was 99.2%. Findings reveal that 109(28.61%) of the respondents rural women in Minna metropolis were very much exposed to maternal health information on digital media with (Mean=4.14), while WhatsApp group 111(29.13%) (Mean=4.09), whereas 107(28.08%) with (Mean= 3.88) were exposed to Internet discussion forum. However, discussion forum and social networks appear to be the major sources of maternal health information among rural women in Minna metropolis. Lack of local content on maternal health issues and inadequate relevant maternal health information were revealed as the challenges to maternal health. The study recommends that digital media should be effectively and efficiently used for maternal health improvement in Nigeria health centres.
Author Keywords:- Maternal health, public health, digital media, innovation, healthcare, awareness creation, communication, perception, strategy, information.

Cell Phones Usage for Academic Activities amongst Undergraduate Students of the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Abdulhameed Kayode Agboola1, Amoto Ezekiel Sunday
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study investigated the use of cell phone for academic activities amongst the undergraduate students of Federal University of Technology Minna (FUTMX). Survey questionnaire was usedto collect data from 379 respondents drawn based on stratified random sampling. The response rate was 99%. Findings showed that the majority 246(65.6%) of the respondents were very strongly agreed that they have awareness on the usage of cell phones for making calls, while 224(59.7%) of them were very strongly agreed that they use cell phones to access the Internet. Whereas, 122(32.5%) of the respondents were very strongly agreed that spending more time on cell phone reduces academic performance. Also 209(55.7%) of the respondents were very strongly agreed that most students of FUTMX face the challenges of slow internet connection, 252(67.2%) respondents were very strongly agreed that wireless internet infrastructure in the university should be upgraded to ensure quality, speed and availability to students.
Author Keywords:- Cell phone, academic activities, internet connection, wireless internet, internet infrastructure, academic performance, awareness, internet access, high broadband, internet speed.

Power-Preservation Corruption: A Threat to Internal Security of the Gambia
Onyemaechi Augustine Eke Ph.D
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The Gambia, for more than five decades after independence, produced but two presidents – Jawara and Jammeh. The presidential election which was won by Barrow to succeed Jammeh was fraught with crisis that took international intervention to resolve. Political analysts have sweepingly and worryingly concluded that the threat to internal security of The Gambia is power-preservation corruption. This research focuses on two-pronged objectives: the broad objective is to examine historical dynamics of powerpreservation corruption by presidents of The Gambia; and the specific objective is to underscore an analysisbased solution to power-preservation as a challenge to internal security of The Gambia. We adopted the ex post facto (quasi-experimental) design and analysed qualitatively, data assembled from secondary sources of vast array of literature. Relying on power preservation explanation of power theory, we concluded that powerpreservation corruption constitute the major internal insecurity of The Gambia.
Author Keywords:- power, power-preservation, corruption, threat, security

An Ethnographic Investigation of Indigenous Management Thoughts and Practices of the IDO People of the Kalabari Nationality of Nigeria
OYIBO, Constance Obiobraa, ASAWO, Soye Peniel, Ph.D
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The application of Western management theories and philosophies in African societies have been called to question by scholars, thus igniting calls for management principles and practices that reflect the contextual nuances and environmental challenges of Africa. This paper examined the indigenous traditional practices of Ido people of Kalabari, an Ijaw tribe in Rivers State, Nigeria, with a view to identifying the precolonial management thoughts and practices embedded in them. This is an ethnographic study which adopted interviews, group discussion and observation as sources of data collection. Adopting the judgemental sampling technique, 15 critical stakeholders of Ido Community – six males and nine females participated in the interview and focused group sessions while the researchers lived as participant observers in the community to identify the prevailing management practices and their underlying philosophy. The results of the study indicate that the Ido people were already utilising indigenous management principles and practices before the advent of colonialism. It was concluded that there is urgent need for more investigations into the traditional practices of Africa and other developing economies to discover indigenous management theories and practices of these geographies that will take cognizance of their contextual nuances and environmental peculiarities in order to proffer solutions to their peculiar challenges.
Author Keywords:- Cell phone, academic activities, internet connection, wireless internet, internet infrastructure, academic performance, awareness, internet access, high broadband, internet speed.

Octopus and Midget in the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: Who Determines What States, Why and How?
Onyemaechi Augustine Eke Ph.D, Sampson I. Ekwonna
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The age-long Israeli-Palestinian conflict has raised global security concerns and attracted solution trajectories which emphasised two-state solution and ignored policy framework towards “one-state” solution, especially based on the new dynamics in the aftermath of U.S. declaration of Jerusalem as the capital city of Israel. The U.S. declaration introduced unequal relationship between Israel and the Palestinian Authority at the Washington peace negotiations. Consequently, the Palestinian Authority protested that the U.S. acted in selfinterest based on her historical relationship with Israel rather than for peace and security in the Middle East and the world. The Palestinian Authority withdrew from direct negotiation with Israel and questioned U.S. moral ground to act as an ‘honest broker’ in packaging a new peace plan. As a reprisal, the U.S. cut all aid to Palestine, except some $42 million for security cooperation, and closed down Palestinian Liberation Organisation liaison office in Washington. Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas reacted and cut off security cooperation with the U.S. Israeli-Palestinian relationship demonstrates that where parties play it dirty, morality is hardly the option. The broad objective of this paper is to analyse the opportunities and challenges in the Israeli-Palestinian two-state, one-state and no-state solution within the rubrics of global realpolitik of asymmetrical relationship between power-studded Israel and the putative power-drought Palestinian Authority. The specific aim is to recommending policy solution for enduring peace and stability in the Middle East region and the world at large.
Author Keywords:- peace process, security, one-state solution, two-state solution, no-state solution

Entrepreneurial Skill needs of Agricultural Education Graduates in Vocational Training for Combating Unemployment F.C.T, Nigeria
NGBONGHA, Innocent Okpa, AKAA, Isaac
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The study investigates the entrepreneurship skill needs of agricultural education graduates in Vocational training for combating unemployment F.C.T, Nigeria. The study used survey research design. Two research questions two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred and eighty three (283) respondents were randomly selected in the six area council. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The method of data analysis was the use of descriptive statistic (mean and standard deviation) Benchmark of 2.5 was used as criterion for agreed and less than 2.5 was considered disagreed. Chi-square statistics was used to test the Null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that various areas of poultry production skills were acquired by graduates of agricultural education and also employment opportunities for agricultural education graduates in marketing of poultry products thrive in the study area. It was therefore, recommended that graduates of agricultural education graduates should be given orientation on the various employment opportunities available within their environment in their area of skills to be self-dependence and also agricultural education graduates should put in to practice their areas of skills acquisition in order to be self-employ and reduce unemployment
Author Keywords:- Vocational training, entrepreneurship, graduates of Agricultural education