(November-December 2020)

Analyzing Business Performance at Tay Ninh Power Company
Nguyen Ngoc Thanh Tam, Nguyen Khac Hieu, Ha Thi Ngoc Anh
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Improving business performance is one of the important factors to contribute to increased competitiveness for businesses. In recent years, Tay Ninh Power Company has performed well in the role of ensuring electricity supply for socio-economic development needs in Tay Ninh province. However, Tay Ninh Power Company still has some limitations in production and business performance such as Electricity consumption, average electricity selling price, electricity loss rate, and labor productivity. This article aims to analyze the causes of these limitations, propose solutions to address the above limitations, thereby contributing to improving the business performance of Tay Ninh Power Company.

Author Keywords:- business performance, power company, PCTN

Community Building Behavior Management Green Open Space
Rahmansah, Mithen Lullulangi, Muhammad Ardi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study aims to determine the behavior of the Bugis people managing green open space. Research sites are in the districts of Bone, Soppeng, and Wajo. Respondents of the study, as many as 300 families, namely 100 households in each district, were chosen randomly. Research variables: (1) community behavior managing green open space as the dependent variable (Y), (2) conservation knowledge (X1), (3) environmental knowledge (X2), and (4) green open space knowledge (X3) as independent variables. Data collection techniques are questionnaires, and data analysis techniques with descriptive analysis and multiple regression. The results showed that: (1) community behavior managing green open space (Y) in the high category, (2) conservation knowledge (X1) in the medium category, (3) environmental knowledge (X2) in the medium category, and (4) green open space knowledge (X3) medium category. The magnitude of the effect of X1, X2, and X3 together against Y = 98%, and there are 2% influence from other variables not examined.

Author Keywords:- behavior, knowledge, attitude, green open space

Tourism Marketing Dimension on Bangladesh Perspective
Md. Rafiqul Islam
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Basically this paper focuses on the tourism perspective surroundings and tourism marketing dimension of Bangladesh. The expansion of the tourism industry all over the world has enlarged drastically in the twenty first century. Many countries are trying to attract their tourists by using lucrative as well as effective marketing strategies. Here trying to explore the actual scenario of the tourism industry through using the secondary data sources. The main objective of the study is to explore the tourism marketing trends in Bangladesh and identify the drawbacks of the tourism marketing activities. The analysis and findings of this study would be the logical steps to expand the tourism industry in Bangladesh. As a result a large number of national and foreign tourists can be attracted to the tourism destinations along with the tourism industry may gear up their foreign earnings.

Author Keywords:-Bangladesh, Destination, Foreign earnings, Perspective, Tourism Marketing.

The Effect of Logical Organization on the Academic Essay Written by EFL Student
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aimed to investigate Sudanese EFL undergraduate students’ academic writing problems in terms of logical organization. It focused on the logical organization to explore the difficulties of both writing techniques and logical organization. A descriptive-analytic method was used. Three groups in three Sudanese universities were targeted for the study, which their major is English language and linguistics. A questionnaire and a test were used for data collection and 137 responses were received. The results of the questionnaire revealed that 75.19% of the respondents believed that academic writing techniques are crucial. The results of the academic essay writing revealed that students confronted difficulties in the logical organization, consistency, or drawing an effective conclusion. The study recommended that academic writing courses should be taught in all academic disciplines of the Sudanese higher education institutions and remedial classes on these facets should be covered effortlessly.
Author Keywords:- Academic writing, Error Analysis, logical organization, writing difficulties, essay.

The Importance of Intellectual Capital affecting on Firm’s Net Profit
Pavinee Na Srito, Sobchoke Na Srito, Napaporn Khantanapha, Rapeepun Piriyakul
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This research was aimed at investigating the cost sources of intellectual assets and the problems of costing system in creating intellectual assets, interpretation to bring the accounting figures, and analysis of business benefits from intellectual assets. Data were collected by interviewing those responsible for preparing the selected companies’ annual reports and financial statements and by analyzing their financial statements. The results of the research show that there were three types of hidden costs of intellectual assets that did not appear in the financial statements: (1) informal training, (2) knowledge search from the Internet, and (3) knowledge communication (within the company through the use of e-mail, company's website, and receiving of information from customers via email). This research found that knowledge search from the Internet and knowledge communication could affect the creation of intellectual assets, which implies the creation of business benefits from the use of intellectual assets.
Author Keywords:- Intangible assets, intellectual assets, intellectual capital, research and development, hidden costs.

The Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Work Motivation and Work Discipline on Employee Performance in Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District
Yulina Eliza, Eka Pan Budi, Adrifides, Romi Zulfi Yandra
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District is a sub-district expansion from the Induk District, namely the Basa Ampek Balai Tapan District. The programs and activities that had been planned at the beginning of the year by Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District and were supported by an adequate budget turned out not to be fully realized by Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District employees. The research objective was to determine the effect of emotional intelligence, work motivation and work discipline on employee performance at Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District. The approach used in this research is quantitative research and testing the proposed hypothesis. Hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis model. The population in this study were all employees of Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District, Pesisir Selatan Regency, amounting to 34 people, a sample of 34 people. The data used are primary and secondary data. Analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Based on the results of the study, it was found that 1) the variable of emotional intelligence had an effect on the performance of employees in Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District, Pesisir Selatan Regency. 2) Work motivation variable affects the employee performance in Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan District, Pesisir Selatan Regency. 3) The variable of work discipline has an effect on the performance of the employees of Ranah Ampek Hulu Tapan Subdistrict, Pesisir Selatan Regency.
Author Keywords:- emotional intelligence, work motivation, work discipline and performance.

Flow of Institutional Credit to Agriculture – A Case Study of SALEM District in Tamilnadu
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Agriculture in India is a crossroads and major challenge of the policy makers of to reserve se the trend of deceleration in agricultural growth which is directly associated with the declining of public investment in agricultural research and development .Fragmentation of holdings, lack of infrastructure and structured markets outdated technology and inappropriate input pricing policies of the government .The crisis of agricultural stagnation needs immediate attention and treatment on the part of planners and policy makers . Recording the continues deceleration of agriculture growth, the present study attempts to analysis the trend and growth of flow of credit to agriculture after 2001 in India. The study based on secondary source of data compile from several sources, revealed that structure of credit outlet has witnessed significant chance and commercial banks have emerged as the major source of institutional credit to agriculture in recent years, but the declining share of investment credit in total credit may constrain the sustainable growth of agriculture in India. The situation calls for concrete efforts to augment the follow of credit to agriculture, alongside to exploring the new innovation in the farming practices, product design and methods of delivery through better use of technology and related processes .Facilitating credit through processor, NGO and input dealers that are vertically integrated with farmers for providing them critical inputs or processing their produce, could increase the credit flow to agriculture significantly.
Author Keywords:- Institutional credit, agricultural productivity, Sustainable Deployment and inclusive growth.

The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) Applied to a Snail Chips in PT. X
Silvi Rushanti Widodo, Lolyka Dewi Indrasari
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
One of the companies that will develop a business strategy is PT X, which is engaged in the production of snail meat. The purpose of this study is to determine the position of the company and the sequence of strategies that should be used for the sale of snail chips. The use of the research object is the development of a business strategy for snail chip products is QSPM. The first strategy is to increase cooperation with new steamers to offset the increasing volume of demand and reach consumers more widely. The second is to improve the quality better than the competitors at an affordable price and the third is to plan the schedule in a timely way in case of increased demand volume.
Author Keywords:- QSPM, snail chips, marketing.

Risk Factors of Youth Violence in Bangladesh: A Statistical Investigation
Mohammad Ahsan Uddin
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Youth violence is a serious public health problem which has received significant attention in recent years. No society or community, whether affluent or poor, urban or rural, is secure from its destructive effects. It has become a high-visibility, high-priority concern in our country, Bangladesh. The main objective of this study is to find out the risk factors of youth violence in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the determinants of weapon using during violence are also sought in this study. Binary logistic regression model is used for both the occasions. The study finds economic and education status as significantly influencing occurrence of youth violence. Age, division, and crime place are the significant risk factors for using weapon according to the findings of the study. Moreover, family type and effect of western culture have significant association with weapon using, while effects of drug and reasons of youth violence are also associated according to Chi-square test of significance. The study finds evidence that global networking and western culture have influence on youth violence. Though this is an era of globalization, we must become aware of the misuse of it of our youths. It is found from the result that the youths from lower middle and middle class family are more involved in youth violence. It is not suggested to upgrade their social status to lessen youth violence, they should be enhanced with more moral and social education, and that responsibility should be taken mainly by their families. The political leaders can play have a great role in reducing youth violence as youth have a significant tendency to use weapon in violence at political programs. After all, considering all the hazards to the country arriving from youth violence, Government should come forward with necessary steps to control this violence in a great extent.
Author Keywords:- Youth violence, Risk factors, Bivariate Analysis, Binary logistic regression model, Chi-square test.

Errors Analysis of the Grammar Errors in Academic English Writing
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aims to investigate Sudanese EFL undergraduate students’ grammar errors. The objectives were to identify, analyze and provide some possible recommendations. A descriptive analytic method was used. The representative samples were 137 participants. The results revealed that The students produced 153 errors of 137 students’ writing which was grouped into 10 categories of errors, they are errors in Singular/Plural Form is 20 errors, verb tense is 7 errors, preposition is 7 errors, subject verb agreement is 27 errors, article is 16 errors, spelling is 40 errors, verb form is 7 errors, capitalization is 8 errors, misuse word is 8 errors and missing word is 13 errors. Findings explored that the cause of the errors is the students’ grammar mastery. It could be thought that the students’ grammar mastery is lower. The study suggested that teacher should be aware on the students’ actual level.
Author Keywords:- Errors Analysis, Academic Writing Errors, Grammar Errors, EFL Academic Writing Errors.

The Effect of the Appleton Model on the Acquisition of Syntactic Concepts among Students of the College of Administration and Economy, Department of Industrial Management
Dr. Taghreed Fadhil Abbas, Rafid Sabah al–Tamimi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The teaching Arabic language is marred by many deficiencies because teachers are focusing on a purely theoretical method. Therefore, there is an urgent need to employ modern teaching methods. Accordingly, this investigation aimed at identifying the effect of the Appleton model on students' acquisition of Arabic syntactic concepts. The research specimen consisted of the first-stage students in the Department of Industrial Management, College of Administration and Economy, Baghdad University for the academic year 2019-2020, the first semester. It was concluded that the Appleton model had an effect on the acquisition of Arabic syntactic concepts compared to the conventional method. Based on the research findings, the researchers suggested some recommendations.
Author Keywords:- -----------

Life Insurance Purchase Decision: A Behavioral Study of Cambodian People
Papitchaya Wisankosol.,Ph.D. Ratchayaporn O-sot, Nopchanok Sangchai
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Life insurance is becoming more and more important to the nation's socio-economic as it is one of the sectors that provide financial service similarly to the banking industry or microfinance, however it provides financial protection to the beneficiary in the event of an insured person death or total permanent disability. Considering an unforeseeable risk of financial status that could possibly happen in a person's life, the concept of life insurance exists to people who are the breadwinners. This research aimed to study the behavior of Cambodian people on life insurance purchase decisions. The study was conducted utilizing the theory of planned behavior (attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control) with an additional factor known as the perceived risk to predict the behavior of Cambodian people. The research was conducted as a quantitative analysis with descriptive and inferential research with a sample size of 334 respondents who have not had experience with life insurance products. The results of this research were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The finding shows all variables have a significant influence on purchase intention, except perceived behavioral control. Interestingly, perceived risk influences both purchase intention and purchase decision. There is a need for greater knowledge sharing and awareness from government and insurance service providers to Cambodian people on the benefit of having life insurance.
Author Keywords:- Attitude toward the behavior, Life insurance, Perceived behavioral control, Perceived risk, Purchase intention, Purchase decision, Subjective norms.

Settlement attempts in China: The Shanghai Peace Conference 1919-1920
Nadia Kadhim Mohammed Al-Aboudi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The Shanghai Peace Conference is one of the most prominent attempts of a peaceful settlement that China witnessed during the Warlords (1916-1928). The conference was held between two delegations on both sides of the conflict; the military government in the south, which has constitutional legitimacy, and the Beijing government, which enjoys international recognition and Japanese support . The conference aimed to restore the unity of China ravaged by internal political divisions and military conflicts. However, there was a lack of confidence in the position of the northern government in responding to the demands of the southern government.
Author Keywords:- China's Political History, Sun Yat-sen, Tuan Chi Jui.

The Role of Myth in the Emergance of Eye as a Symbol for the Ancient Egyptian
Dr.Tatheer Abdul Jabbar Naji
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The eye played a part in the hieroglyphic language when it appeared as one of the signs or symbols that expressed the activities and actions related to them, such as vision, attention, observation, etc. So, it was chosen as a mythical symbol due to its importance as an organ of the human body and as a main focus of the conflict between Horus and Seth. The eye was called "Alwchaat", the left eye of the God of Horus, which he lost in his eternal struggle with his maleficent enemy, Set. Its completion indicates health and strength. It is a graphic translation for Egyptian ancient Math in which it is regarded as an arithmetic equivalent for the parts of the even one. It was used in amulets and necklaces for protecting and preserving in which it was in the form of the cobra snake, which protects from harm on the forehead of the god, and it is one of the most common and strangest symbols in Egyptian art.
Author Keywords:- ----------

Examination of Work Place Behaviours and Comportment in the Nigerian University System
Omeire, C. O., Omeire, E. U. Onuama, E. C. , Otusile, E. O.
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The paper examined work place behaviours in the Nigerian university system. The concept of work was explicated and the work environment, which is the university, was construed as a centre of excellence in teaching, learning and research, and a factory for the production of quality manpower required for the technological, economic, political and social development of a nation. The paper identified unacceptable behaviours such as falsification of records and absence from duty without leave. It highlighted the attributes of an efficient university worker which include exemplary conduct and resourcefulness. The paper provided useful behavioural tips for university workers including the admonition to avoid bicycle leadership orientation in which the individual (worker) bows to those on top, mocks those behind and presses down on those below.
Author Keywords:- Work Place, Behaviours, Comportment, University, Nigeria.

The Impact of Employing the Realistic Model on the Academic Achievement of History Subject and the Development of Critical Thinking among the Literary Fifth-Grade Female Students
Lect. Iman Muhammad Khudair, Prof. Dr. Saad Ali Zayer
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The research aims at studying the impact of employing the realistic model in the academic achievement of history subject and the development of critical thinking among fifth-grade literary female students. The research was applied to the research sample adopting the experimental approach with the post-test of achievement, pre and post-test for critical thinking, where the sample was divided into an experimental group (30 female students) using the realistic model and a control group (30 female students) using the standard method. After conducting equivalence between the two groups in (chronological age, intelligence, the criterion of pre-critical thinking, and the grades of students in the history subject for the fourth grade of middle school) the scientific material represented in the first and second semesters of the subject to be taught to fifth-grade literary students at the Ministry of Education was determined. The behavioral purposes were extracted, preparing the required plans, and students were taught according to their steps. After applying the experiment and applying the two research tools, the following results were reached: 1- There is a statistically significant difference at the level of (0.05) in achievement in favor of the experimental group. 2- There is a difference of statistical significance at the level (0.05) between the mean scores of the two groups in developing critical thinking in favor of the experimental group.
Author Keywords:- -----------.

Innovation as a Competitive Advantage for Public Universities Managed through Innovation Parks. The Specific Case of the Technological Innovation Park of the Universidad Autónoma De Sinaloa
José Ramón López Arellano, Tania Nadiezhda Plascencia Cuevas
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Sinaloa is not far from other Mexican states where the relationship between industry, university and government does not converge on the same axis that leads to regional development to place the state in the first places in terms of competitiveness in technological development. In this state, the main activity has focused on primary production within the agricultural sector and not on innovation that generates high value-added products. Scientific production and its impact on regional competitiveness were evaluated when it is linked through the management model of the Technological Innovation Park of the Autonomous University of Sinaloa. Some of the results indicate that the PIT-UAS has a high potential to promote growth and economic development through the link between Higher Education Institutions and companies, whether they are established organizations, technology-based or Spin-off, as well as to promote academic and inter-academic production through publications and dissemination in high-impact magazines, congresses, symposia, and other activities that allow the dissemination of knowledge, all this through government incentives that promote and support said activities.
Author Keywords:- Triple Helix, Competitiveness, Innovation, Innovation Park, Inter-academic cooperation.

Does Green Employee Empowerment Mediate the Relationship between Green HRM and Environmental Performance?
H.M.R.D. Kularathne
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
An empirical study was carried out in relation to Green HRM, Green employee empowerment and environmental performance owing to empirical and contextual gap. This study focuses on exploring the mediating role of green employee empowerment on the relationship between green HRM practices including green recruitment and selection, green training and development, green performance management and green rewards systems and environmental performance in dairy industry in Sri Lanka. This study has adopted quantitative research strategy and three hypotheses were developed based on empirical gaps identified in literature review. Data were gathered from managers in the dairy industry by using self-filled closed ended questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS software tool. Study found that green employee empowerment partially mediates the relationship between green HRM practices and environmental performance in dairy industry. Implications of this study have been drawn toward practitioners and researchers. This study provides managerial policy makers fruitful insights on sustainable business operations. It can be recommended that organizations should empower employees to engage in green initiatives through green HRM practices in order to enhance the environmental performance of the dairy firm. In order to encourage future researchers, this study has highlighted gaps in the green human resource management systems and environmental performance.
Author Keywords:- Environmental Sustainability, Green Employee Empowerment, Green HRM, Environmental Performance, Dairy Industry, Sri Lanka.

Analysis of Efficiency of National Amil Zakat Institutions Using Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
Effendie, Tika Widiastuti*, Dwi Admaja Sebriansah
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This quantitative research investigates the technical efficiency of LAZNAS (Lembaga Amil Zakat Nasional – National Amil Zakat Institution) with research period from 2012-2016. The research uses two approaches, namely non-parametric approach using two-stage Data Envelopment Analysys (DEA) to measure the efficiency level of amil zakat institutions, while parametric approach uses Tobit regression model to see the factors that influence the efficiency these institutions. This research uses DEA method with production orientation input approach. It is assumed that LAZNAS as the Decision Making Unit (DMU) of social institution has input variable in the form of Human Resources Expense (X1) and Operational Expense (X2). While the output variables consist of Zakat Fund (Y1) and Zakat Distribution (Y2). The results showed that 20 DMUs were in increasing return to scale and 2 DMUs are in the decreasing return to scale. The remaining 8 DMU are in efficient condition. Technical measurements show that BNI is the most efficient LAZNAS with an average efficiency rating of 92.8% throughout 2012- 2016 followed by LAZNAS Rumah Yatim with average efficiency 70.4% and PKPU with average efficiency 64.8%.
Author Keywords:- Efficiency, Lembaga Zakat Nasional (LAZNAS), National Zakat Institution, Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis, Zakat.

The Paradigm of Information and Communications Technology and Service Delivery in Anambra Broadcasting Service, Awka 2014-2019
Onwunyi, Ugochukwu Mmaduabuchi; Agary, Nwokoye Ndubuisi PhD; Udegbunam, Victor Emeka
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This paper examines the opportunities and challenges of utilizing Information and Communication Technologies as a means of public service delivery in the Nigerian Public service with specific focus on Anambra Broadcasting Service. The paper adopted the change game theory as its theoretical framework and argued that ICTs present enormous opportunities to enhance public service delivery in Anambra Broadcasting Service. The study therefore, revealed that the utilization of ICTs for service delivery in Anambra Broadcasting Service presents a sustainable and innovative approach to addressing traditional problems of service delivery in the communication sector. The paper also revealed that ICTs initiatives for service delivery in the Anambra Broadcasting Service are hampered by many challenges and problems such as lack of ICTs infrastructure; low ICTs literacy and usage; problem of digital divide; inadequate ICTs funding by the government; Nigeria's epileptic power supply; poor institutional governance structure to drive ICTs, etc. Nevertheless, the paper argues that ICTs remains a veritable instruments of enhancing public service delivery in the public service as they have great potentials of saving costs while improving quality, response time and access to services; improving the efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness of public administration; increasing transparency in administration due to ease of access to government information, rules and procedures, resulting in openness and accountability; reducing corruption and increasing popular participation; making governments more competitive and reducing bureaucracy; re-engineering administrative processes and modernising service delivery; and bringing about social and economic development.
Author Keywords:- ICT, Public Service Delivery, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Change Game.

Necessity of Establishing Quality Assurance Unit as Panacea to Facility Management Improvement during Pandemic in Rivers State University
NKPITE, Bari-ene Samuel, OHOCHUKU, Chinwennwo Phillips
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Facilities management is fundamentally a service industry in which tertiary institutions provided services to the people. Tertiary institutions have taken quality assurance as a multi-tasking approach to develop its infrastructure and processes for this nature of educational needs so that facilities management can meet the changing needs of tertiary institutions. Therefore, this study investigated the purposes for establishing quality assurance unit to necessitate improved facilities management during pandemic in Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional case study research design, and secondary data, was consolidated upon from books, journals and document, while the primary data was obtained from one-one interview questions from 42 stakeholders of Quality assurance unite and Lecturers of the Faculty of Environmental Sciences representing 78% responses rate. The collected data was qualitatively analyzed with thematic content analysis. The study shows that the purposes of establishing quality assurance unit in tertiary institution serves as regulatory mechanism on accountability and improvement in facilities management establishing confidence in stakeholder’s inputs, processes and output of educational system are fulfilled with expected standards. The study also established that a task oriented approach adopted to deliver changes in facilities management coordinating the processes of buildings, and teaching and learning environment to transfer fundamental knowledge on facility management to substantial expectations. Furthermore, the study discovered that the issues involving quality assurance concerning FM with tasks performed include building, cleaning, safety, security, health services, and equipment maintenance services, complaints/feedback mechanism, hazard management, power generation, I.C.T and surveillance services and FM training/sensitization. Therefore, deliberate effort should be demonstrated visibly to commitments of collective responsibilities of all stakeholders improving facility management with the established quality assurance unit to overcome the pandemic in Nigerian Universities.
Author Keywords:- Facilities Management, Quality, Assurance, Improvement, Tertiary Institutions, Establishment.

The Influence of Trasformasional Leadership and Organizational Climate on Job Satisfaction of Modan Planting Service Employees and Integrated Licensing Services one Door South Coastal District with Work Motivation as Intervening Variables
Yulina Eliza, Destri Ira Bahlinda, Era Mardina, Hardi Fardian
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aims to find out how influential The Organization's Trsformasional Leadership and Climate is on Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation as Intervening Variables. This type of research uses quantitative approach with multiple liner regression method. Data collection techniques with questionnaires, respondents of this study are 30 employees of the Office of Investment and Licensing Services Terpsdu One Door South Coastal Regency. Sample withdrawal method using total sampling method where the entire population in this study is used as research sample. From the results of this study found that: 1). Transformational Leadership has no effect on Work Motivation 2) Organizational climate has a significant influence on Work Motivation 3) Transformational Leadership has a significant effect on Job Satisfaction 4) Work Motivation has no effect on Job Satisfaction 5) Organizational Climate has a significant effect on Job Satisfaction 6) Transformational Leadership has a significant effect on Job Satisfaction with Work Motivation as an Intervening variable7) Organizational Climate has a significant influence on job satisfaction with Work Motivation as a variable Intervening Employees Of the Investment Office and Integrated Licensing Services One Door South Coastal Regency.
Author Keywords:-Transformational Leadership, Organizational Climate, Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction.

Difficulties Faced by Teachers in Using American Sign Language in Deaf Classrooms in Cameroon
Enow Parris Cecilia Bechem
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Deaf teachers have inadequate knowledge and professional training in American Sign Language (ASL) in Cameroon. Deaf learners are disadvantaged because of lack of signing competence from teachers. Teachers face problems in teaching many subjects since most of the signs referring to certain objects, practices and beliefs are absent in the culture of those who are not of American origin. A Cameroonian sign language should be developed and used in specialised settings. This study was done in four deaf schools: Morningstar, Mbingo, Ephphatha and Buea schools for the deaf. This descriptive survey made use of a questionnaire, interview and observation guides as instruments for data collection. The sample of the study was 30 teachers and 413 pupils from the four deaf schools. Findings indicate that teachers have insufficient knowledge on effective use of ASL during instructions (83%); Teachers adapted other modes of communication during instruction (90%). It was concluded that a Cameroonian sign language be developed while teacher training colleges and some departments in the Universities include sign language as a subject in their curriculum so that graduates are empowered with skills to teach pupils with special needs.
Author Keywords:- ASL, adaptation, deafness, education, signing.