Volume 6 ~ Issue 1, January-February (2024)

A Comparative Study on the Spatial Changes in Land-Use and Associated Environmental Impacts of Coastal Tourist Destinations: Hikkaduwa vs. Bentota, Sri Lanka
Wijerathne, K. B. P. C. A, Bandara, T. W. M. T. W, Athukorala. W
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The tourism industry is one of the main economic activities of the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka and is closely related to land-use as it dramatically transforms the natural land into highly artificial ones. The study focuses on the analysis of the spatial contrasts of land-use and environmental impacts in two coastal tourist destinations in the southern coast of Sri Lanka: Hikkaduwa and Bentota. For this, both primary and secondary data were used. Three samples, each consisting of fifty units from the local community, tourist stakeholders, and tourists, were randomly selected. Information regarding the environmental impact of tourismdriven land-use, obtained through three types of questionnaires, underwent descriptive analysis. Detection of land-use changes utilized various tools, including topo maps, high-resolution Google Earth images, and GPSbased ground truth observations. For the study, two areas covering a total of 36 square kilometers each in Hikkaduwa and Bentota were designated. The land-use for the years 1984, 2010, 2018, and 2022 was digitized using ArcGIS 10.8.3 software, with their extents calculated in hectares via the Geometric Calculator. To evaluate the spatial diversity of land use attributes, the designated area of 36 square kilometers in both Hikkaduwa and Bentota has been segmented into six buffer zones, each extending one kilometer from the coast inland. Identification of the change in mixed land-use diversity in the two sites over time was accomplished through the application of the Entropy Value (H) based on the land extents of digitized land-uses. The first buffer zone in Hikkaduwa requires planned development, given its significant role in the tourism industry. Opportunities for ecotourism development lie in the second and third buffer zones, featuring tourism constructions and valuable natural resources. In Bentota, the first buffer zone is marked by beach tourismrelated structures, while the Dedduwa reservoir could drive a tourist zone in the second and third buffer zones. The study also highlighted a shift in land-use patterns. Hikkaduwa transitioned from proportional mixed landuse to a dominant land-use type, while Bentota maintained a more balanced proportion of major land uses. Moreover, Hikkaduwa faced more severe environmental problems compared to Bentota, emphasizing the need for a formal and sustainable land-use plan in Hikkaduwa. The involvement of stakeholders responsible for land use, tourism development, and environmental conservation was deemed crucial for achieving this.

Author Keywords:- Comparative study, Spatial changes of land-use, Hikkaduwa and Bentota, Environmental impacts, Entropy value, Coastal tourism industry

The Influence of Good Corporate Governance and Sustainability Report Disclosure On Company Value with Profitability as Intervening Variable
Aisya Andina Putri, Dr. Ririn Irmadariyani M. Si., Ak, Dr. Nining Ika Wahyuni S. E., M. Sc., Ak
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study aims to examine the impact of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) and the disclosure of sustainability reports on company value, with profitability serving as an intermediary factor. The research focuses on companies that are regarded as trustworthy and highly trusted, as identified by The Indonesian Institute for Corporate Governance (IICG) and that release sustainability with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) standards. Utilizing a quantitative approach, the study relies on secondary data sourced from annual reports and financial statements in Indonesian Rupiah. The primary variable under consideration is Company Value, with profitability acting as an intervening factor, assessed through the return on assets (ROA) ratio. The independent variables encompass Good Corporate Governance and Sustainability Report, gauged by the sustainability report disclosure index based on GRI Standard guidelines. The research sample, comprising 12 companies, is selected through purposive sampling techniques. The findings indicate that both Good Corporate Governance (GCG) and Sustainability Report (SR) exert a positive and significant influence on company value. Moreover, Good Corporate Governance (GCG) demonstrates a positive and significant impact on profitability, mirroring the effect observed with Sustainability Report (SR) disclosure. Additionally, Good Corporate Governance (GCG) contributes positively and significantly to company value through profitability, while Sustainability Report (SR) disclosure similarly exhibits a positive and significant effect on company value through profitability.

Author Keywords:- GCG, CGPI, Sustainability Report, GRI, Profitability, Company Value

Towards Understanding the Meaning of “There is Neither Jew Nor Greek, there is Neither Slave Nor Free, there is Neither Male Nor Female…” in Galatians 3:28
ALAMU, Samuel Sunday Ph.D, OLULOWO, Segun Ayotunde Ph.D
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

In Africa, social and gender distinctions are some of the problems which cut across different ethnic groups, cultures, races and religions. It varies in degrees from place to place, culture to culture is common in social class, political arena, educational sector and religious circles. For instance, the attitudes of the men towards women, the rich towards the poor, educated towards the uneducated can best be described as unacceptable. Most often, this problem borders on the cultural, religious and traditional notions of the people concerned. The distinction is clearly evident and it is present in our society. Some ethnics feel superior to others, and quite often, females are seen as inferior to their male counterparts, and regarded as incapable and unqualified to perform certain functions effectively as their men counterparts. In most of the churches in Nigeria for instance, women are not allowed to administer Holy Communion service or baptize young Christians. Religious ordination is not usually conferred upon them in some mainline and classical Pentecostal churches. Women have also suffered undeserved stigmatization for bearing female children. This is because African society is still male dominated society and the church has not grown above racial sentiments, discriminations and gender politics. This attitude, over the years, is unacceptable and preposterous. Women and the society in general can no longer afford to be looked down upon because of their gender or ethnicity which they did not chose by themselves. Thus, using the critical-historical analytical method, the paper examined an understanding of the meaning of “there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female” in Galatians 3:28. It is believed that, a proper understanding of the text will foster unity, peace and love among the Christians and African society in general.

Author Keywords:Africa, Gender, Male, Female, Galatians 3:28.

New Historicism Analysis in A Christmas Carol Novella by Charles Dickens
Afiya Ulin Nuha Annafiah
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

: This study discusses the analysis of the novel by Charles Dickens entitled A Christmas Carol using the theory of New Historicism. The analysis was carried out using the literature review method. This study used the documentation method for the data collection techniques. This technique includes several steps such as reading the novel as a whole, marking the necessary quotations, and classifying the data. The discussion in this study will discuss the analysis of the novel by describing several aspects such as the author's world background, the historical-cultural environment of the text, and the inner world of the text. The results of the study show that from all that Dickens describes in A Christmas Carol, it is clear that this novel is a form of Dickens' harsh criticism of the government. The Victorian government ignored the rights of its citizens and the right to education for children. In addition, A Christmas Carol provides a new understanding that what is written in history is not necessarily accurate. It could be that the stakeholders made the historical record according to their wishes and interests. The Victorian era, known for its glory, had many dark sides, and Dickens managed to express them well and on target.

Author Keywords:- A Christmas Carol, New Historicism, literary criticism, Charles Dickens, Novella

Winter Is Coming? How to Anticipate a Recession Based On the Knut Wicksell’s Rate of Interest theory
Christophe CATHALA
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Objective: This article assesses the possibility of the Wicksell’s index to predict a recession or at least a strong GDP’s decrease. The Wicksell’s index is simply calculated as the difference between the monetary interest rate and the natural interest rate, defined as the growth rate of firms’ result. Methods: Two steps based on several correlations tests have been carried out. The first step was to check the correlation between the GDP and firm’s result to see if the second is relevant to be considered asthe “simplified” natural growth rate of the economy. The second step was to check the correlation between the Wicksell’s index and the GDP. The tests have been conducted for 3 countries: Germany, Poland and Spain, and for data from 2005 to 2021. Results: It is observed that the Wicksell’s index works well in anticipating a recession or at least a strong decrease of the GDP. Conclusions: The Wicksell’s index should be an interesting tool in anticipating a recession or at least a strong GDP’s decrease. Christophe Cathala designed the experiment. Christophe Cathala supervised the work. Christophe Cathala performed the data analysis. Christophe Cathala drafted the manuscript. The author contributed to writing the article, read and approved its submission.

Author Keywords:---------

The Influence of Environmentally Based Experimental Methods on Students' Science Process Skills
Nur Angriani Putri, Dewi Hikmah Marisda, Edy Kurniawan, Rezkawati Saad, Nurazmi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The focus of the problem in this research is the lack of student involvement in direct learning, while the Physics material is mostly abstract in nature which requires practicum to master the material. This research is a quasi-experiment that aims to describe students' science process skills. Samples were taken using a purposive sampling technique, and class X MIPA 3 was chosen as the experimental class and X MIPA 5 as the control class. The research design is a nonequivalent control group, which provides an initial test and a final test after being given treatment. The results of data analysis in the initial test showed that the Sig (2-tailed) hypothesis test value was 0.225 > 0.05, which means that the science process skills in the experimental class and the control class were the same. After giving treatment (environmentally based experimental method) in class X MIPA 3 and conventional methods in control class X MIPA 5, the Sig value was obtained. (2-tailed) is 0.034 < 0.05, which means there are differences in the two classes so it can be concluded that there is a significant influence on students' science process skills. It is hoped that this research will become a recommendation for Physics teachers in secondary schools to embed experimental methods in Physics learning in every learning achievement

Author Keywords:-environment-based learning, experiments, science process skills.

BODUNDE Kolawole Johnson, BELLO Sunday Ade
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The emergence of Generation Z members in the workplace is unsettling the leader’s mindset as a result of their complexities which has generated varied opinions whether their advent in the world of work presented opportunities or challenges and capable of changing dynamics of work environment and leadership styles. Building on prior theories of leadership and research focusing on the influence of Generation Z complexities on the leadership mindset, the study adopted the use of qualitative method using questionnaire presented to Gen Z members and groups of Managers, Head of HR, General Managers, Directors, Chief Executives, Management Consultants, etc. to find out the degree of influence on the leadership mindset. The survey was conducted using Google form where 75 respondents involving 47 in the categories of Managers to Chief Executives and 28 Gen Z members participated. Findings showed that there is significant influence of Gen Z behavioral attitudes on leadership styles. Also, the statistics revealed that the emergence of Gen Z had created a paradigm shift in the work model and also came with complexities and opportunities hence leaders would be required to transform their mindset to meet the complexities, challenges and the opportunities while exhibiting proactive tendencies to embrace the complexities. It is therefore recommended that leadership must recognize and accept reality through self-consciousness and open mindedness.

Author Keywords:-Generation Z, Complexities, Leadership, Mindset, Workplace.

A Strategy for Maintaining Silat as Identity of the Heterogenous Multicultur Minangkabau Community
Nursyirwan, Rosta Minawati Delfi Enida, Ernida Kadir, Rosmegawaty Tindaon, Riswel Zam, I Dewa Nyoman Supenida, Alfalah
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This innovative research, aims to : (1) Provide explanations of various terms that appear in the Minangkabau community about the term martial arts, martial arts, and martial arts knowledge. (2) To contribute to understanding the nature of silat Minangkabau, and maintaining cultural values embodied her hegemonic globalization cannot be separated from the influence of high technology. (3) to analyze the philosophy of martial arts with a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the original Minangkabau silat. (4) To reveal the superhighway impact on the existence of martial arts as a symbol / symbols "martial" ethnic Minangkabau having a specific identity. (5) To seek answers about the reason why silat Minangkabau has lost favor with the people of today. Research was conducted in an effort to find the right concepts and strategies for the development of silat Minangkabau not independent of the specificity and uniqueness as a reflection of cultural values of the society. The research method deploys qualitative research techniques through interviews, surveys, direct data collection, clarification, a review of data in the literature, and the collection of primary and secondary data. The results of the research suggests the errors in associating the word 'martial' with the word 'martial arts'. To maintain silat as integral to Minangkabau society requires a range of strategies.

Author Keywords:-Silat Minangkabau, Philosophy, Identity and Development Strategy

Forecasting Solar Irradiance with Geographical Considerations: Integrating Feature Selection and Learning Algorithms
Saman Soleymani, Amirreza Talebi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The increasing global demand for clean and environmentally friendly energy resources has caused increased interest in harnessing solar power through photovoltaic (PV) systems for smart grids and homes. However, the inherent unpredictability of PV generation poses problems associated with smart grid planning and management, energy trading and market participation, demand response, reliability, etc. Therefore, solar irradiance forecasting is essential for optimizing PV system utilization. This study proposes the next-generation machine learning algorithms such as random forests, Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Light Gradient Boosted Machine (lightGBM) ensemble, CatBoost, and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks (MLPANNs) to forecast solar irradiance. Besides, Bayesian optimization is applied to hyperparameter tuning. Unlike tree-based ensemble algorithms that select the features intrinsically, MLP-ANN needs feature selection as a separate step. The simulation results indicate that the performance of the MLP-ANNs improves when feature selection is applied. Besides, the random forest outperforms the other learning algorithms.

Author Keywords:-Smart grids, solar irradiance forecasting, MLP-ANNs, random forest, LightGBM, CatBoost, feature selection.

Re-Layout Qwerty Keyboard for Typing Indonesian with Keyboard Layout Analyzer
Sirodjudin, Bambang Suhardi, Pringgo Widyo Laksono
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The use of computers at work is increasing rapidly both in education and other fields of work. Even though touchscreen technology is now known in almost all parts of the world, physical keyboards still have their own place for computer users. Computer use at work includes typing position and duration of computer use. Typing activities for a long duration and the wrong position when typing can risk developing diseases of the fingers and wrists. This research aims to determine the increase in speed and accuracy of 10-finger typing using a QWERTY keyboard for students at SMK N 1 Pedan Klaten. The data collection method was carried out by observation, tests and documentation with data analysis techniques using the descriptive percentage method. The research results show that by using the proposed keyboard there is a difference in the speed of typing Indonesian text where using the proposed keyboard the average typing time for respondents increases by 2.3 minutes. Loading on the big finger where the frequency of the letter 'a' on the little finger is transferred to the stronger finger, namely the middle finger. From these results, using the proposed keyboard is considered faster and has less burden for typing Indonesian.

Author Keywords:-QWERTY keyboard, fast typing, keyboard layout analyzer

Hybrid Work Arrangement on Teachers’ Work-Life Balance: Basis for Strategic Time Management
Cañal, Jaime III B, Picart, Jessa Mae A, Ramido, Jesohaya L.3
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study investigates the effects of hybrid work arrangements on teachers' work-life balance, providing a foundation for the development of successful time management solutions. The study centers on the significance of effective time allocation for Filipino educators, particularly considering the challenges they face due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study used a descriptive survey methodology and a proportionate stratified random sample technique, gathering data from 58 professors at Marymount Academy. The investigation demonstrates that the hybrid model has beneficial impacts on multiple facets of the teaching profession, encompassing: 1.) time allocation; 2.) workload management; 3.) personal growth; and 4.) the teaching-learning process. Moreover, the research highlights the advantageous influence of hybrid work arrangements on teachers' capacity to manage their professional and personal lives, encompassing their self-care practices, familial obligations, social relationships, and recreational pursuits. Nevertheless, the research findings highlight seven significant issues that demand consideration: teachers exceeding their regular working hours (Table 3.1.1, TA6), a rise in administrative responsibilities (Table 3.1.2, WM6), elevated levels of stress (Table 3.1.3, PD6), difficulties in managing in-person and virtual learners (Table 3.1.4, TLP6), adverse effects on family time (Table 3.2.2, QFT1 & GFT2), obstacles in social interactions (Table 3.2.3, SI1 & SI2), and challenges in maintaining a work-life-hobby equilibrium (Table 3.2.4, H1 & H2). The results of this study provide the foundation for strategic time management suggestions to assist instructors in efficiently managing their hybrid work experiences. This study highlights the importance of continuous training and development that is specifically designed to meet the evolving needs of modern education. It emphasizes the need to solve these problems to successfully deploy hybrid work models in the education sector.

Author Keywords:-hybrid work setup, strategic time management, teaching profession, time management, work-life balance.

Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Ergonomic Traffic Sign Comprehension
Winanda Dyah Utari, Bambang Suhardi, Novie Susanto
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Traffic signs are a message to road users and have an important role in ensuring the safety and efficiency of the transportation system. From an ergonomics perspective, a good comprehension of traffic signs is key to accomplish these goals. This study is to analyze the research on the impact of ergonomics on traffic sign comprehension by using bibliometric analysis method that can identify the current research trends and the main focus of previous studies. The information and data in this study were taken from the Scopus database through the Publish or Perish application. In the last 20 years, there are 13 related research publications. These publications have been screened from a total of 177 research publications. The analysis results indicate that research with a focus on the theme of Ergonomic Traffic Sign Comprehension is still relatively limited, especially in Indonesia.

Author Keywords:-Bibliometric Analysis, Ergonomics, Traffic Signs Comprehension.

An Assessment of the Risk Communication, Community Perceptions and Lived Experiences of Residents Living Around the Mine Despite Its Adverse Effects. A Case Study of Maamba Town in Sinazongwe District
Longwani Henry Chaile, Dr. Ibrahim.O. Bwalya Ph.D
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The study aimed to establish whether Maamba Collieries Limited, a mining company in the Sinazongwe District of Zambia contributes to risk communication (advancing knowledge about risk issues, influencing risk-related behavior, and facilitating cooperative resolution). The study adopted an Evaluative Survey Design and employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to complement data analysis. It also explored the extent to which risk messages influence people’s lives by modeling the relationships between risk-related emotive and cognitive contexts in which these factors are embedded. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. The sample size for the study comprised 180 people living around the mine area, 17 Maamba Collieries Limited employees in their capacity, and 3 from Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA). The study used purposive sampling (non-probability) to ensure the inclusion of relevant individuals from pertinent categories (McNeil,2001). The study used questionnaires, interview guides, and document analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings show that Maamba Collieries Limited has fully implemented a risk communication policy in the area of its operation despite mixed views by the respondents who showed no knowledge of MCL’s efforts to communicate risks associated with mining. Overall the study concluded that Maamba Collieries Limited has contributed to risk management by among other measures complying with Government laws related to mining and management of risks associated with mining. The study recommends that the negative attitudes exhibited by some sections of the community on risk perceptions be managed well to avoid negative impacts on the well-built reputation of and compliance with the local laws by Maamba Collieries Limited. Further, it is recommended that Maamba Collieries Limited may consider enhancing a specific risk communication policy that could further be jointly implemented in collaboration with the community through Community Social Responsibility projects. The study recommends that the Government should include among other specific policies that may require mining companies to extensively carry out community education on regular basis highlighting the risks of living around the mining area in Zambia. The study additionally recommends that the community needs to cultivate interest in the mining activities within their communities as well as endeavor to understand the risks associated with mining activities.

Author Keywords:---------.

Evaluation and Improvement of Platform Area Accessibility at Yogyakarta Station: Towards Inclusive Design
Muhammad Rizki, Bambang Suhardi, Pringgo Widyo Laksono
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The rules that become a reference in the development of accessibility of Indonesian railway transportation are from the laws and regulations of the Ministry of Transportation and the Ministry of Public Works. These rules support that transportation must be accessible to all users. Accessibility to transportation can improve economic levels and social justice, especially for people with reduced mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate and propose infrastructure improvements that meet government standards. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the level of accessibility and improve the infrastructure in the platform area of the railway station. Auditing from direct observation of accessibility at Yogyakarta Station which then results in an inclusive design on the platform. The accessibility index obtained is included in the less accessible category with a value of 1.50 which consists of eight sub-aspects of platform infrastructure assessment. The final design is made considering the convenience, safety, and comfort of passengers to boost the index value in accessibility to become an accessible station.

Author Keywords:-accessibility, infrastructure, improvement, platform area, train station.

Impact of Salaries and Promotion On Senior Secondary School Teachers’ Job Performance in Gombi Education Zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria
YAKUBU, Nurudeen, AGAH, P. Marcel
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study investigated the impact of salaries and promotion on senior secondary school teachers’ job performance in Gombi Education Zone of Adamawa State. Two research questions and two research hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 1,709 respondents (which comprised of 1,648 teachers and 61 principals) in Gombi Education Zone. The sample for this study was 377 respondents (53 principals and 322 teachers) which was obtained through Taro Yamane Formula. An instrument titled “Impact of Salaries and Promotion on Teachers’ Job Performance (ISPTJP)” was validated and trial tested with Cronbach Alpha, which showed a reliability coefficient of 0.81. The data gathered were analysed using both descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions and ANOVA to test the null hypotheses. Based on the research findings, the study concludes that, salaries and promotions of staff have significant impact on teacher’s job performance in Gombi Education Zone. The study therefore among others recommended that government through the State Education Board should conduct regular reviews of teachers salaries to ensure they remain competitive within the North East sub region of Nigeria.

Author Keywords:-Conditions of Service; Salaries; Promotion; Teachers’ Job Performance; Gombi Education Zone.

Optimization of the use Total Mixed Ratio (TMR) in Lactation Dairy Cattle
Usman Ali, Badat Muwakhid, Ainun Nafisah
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Objective: This study aims to analyze the effect of the use of concentrate in TMR feed on milk production, milk quality and the economic value in lactating dairy cows. Methods: Experimental research method and Completely Randomized Design included 3 treatment feeds using concentrate in TMR feed, T1=20% concentrate; T2=30% concentrate; T3 = 40% concentrate of TMR feed DM requirement which was repeated 3 times. In each treatment, fresh forage was given ad libitum. The variables observed were dry matter intake (DMI); organic matter intake (OMI); milk production and quality; and economic value. The data obtained were analyzed for variance and LSD test to determine differences between treatments. Result: The increasing use of concentrate in TMR feed significantly increased milk production from 9.49 to 15.07 (liter/head/day). Density of milk significantly increased from 1.02822 to 1.02973 g/ml; non significant in DMI and OMI but tended to increase in DMI (kg/head/day) from 11553 to 12760 and OMI from 8.887 to 10,833 (kg/head/day), significant in Economic Value decreased from 22538 to 21412.67. (IDR/kg DM); significant in lactose and TSNF levels of milk increased from 3.81% to 4.19% and the TSNF value of fresh milk was 7.72% to 8.13%; significantly reduced milk fat content from 3.92% to 2.97%. Conclusion: The greater the use of concentrate in TMR feed for FH dairy cows can increase production and quality of milk such as milk density, Lactose, and SNF but reduce milk fat and the economic value of feed (feed cost for the production of 1 kg DM).

Author Keywords:-Concentrate; Economical feed; FH dairy cattle; Milk quality

I, You and The Others, Among Otherness, Diversity and Education
José Manuel Salum Tomé, PhD
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

When one thinks of the other and the other, they are not due to the sameness of power and hegemonies, and that this other is identified as a face, there remains the possibility of guiding behavior or ethics, along the paths of diversity, understood This is like the discovery of diversity and otherness in education, which are the most appropriate ways to understand that one's own autonomy is in debt, under the figure of a hostage. Humanity has embarked on a path that has no possible reserve and this consists of opening, via postmodernity, a type of thought that is capable of generating recognition scenarios for what is different, as a discovery that greatly benefits everyone. Proposing that otherness is the basis on which diversity is built is already then an open path in education and to be followed that makes life have more meaning through the ethical recognition of the other and of the other who will accompany me in a path of history

Author Keywords:-Alterity, Otherness, diversity, education, human rights, recognition, inclusion.

How Do Stakeholders Perceive Regional Government Loans? A Principal Component Analysis
Dr. Nizwan Zukhri, Muhammad Faisal Akbar, Muhammad Qomaruddin Ridwan
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study is aim to eksplore perception and knowledge of stakeholder in Bangka Belitung Province about regional government debt. As known that regional government is expected to improve the independence of financing their program, so they may to purpose regional government debt. Sample of this study are stakeholder of regional government debt such as lesgilative, head of institution (OPD), and academics. Furthermore This study analyzes stakeholder perceptions consisting of legislative Assembly, executives and academics who are directly related to the implementation of regional loan policies using Polychoric PCA. The results show that component 1 is able to explain the characteristics of the data by 52.83 percent and shows that the majority of stakeholders have a neutral tendency towards the choice of the regional government to make Debt, namely 11 respondents, 5 respondents have a perception of disagreeing and 4 respondents have a perception of agreeing with the regional debt policy. area carried out by the provincial government of the Bangka Belitung islands. However, it is known that on average, respondents only understand regulations regarding regional loans by 63,135 percent.

Author Keywords:-JEL: H81, H31, H54, H72.

Risky Business: 21st Century and Changing Dynamics of Insecurity in Humanitarian Operations
Michael Munyaradzi Makova (PhD)
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The turn of the millennium witnessed significant security challenges in the humanitarian operating environment. Delivering humanitarian aid became risky business. Targeted and collateral attacks against aid workers increased particularly in some high risk humanitarian environments. This was on the background of rise in humanitarian crises causing displacement of millions of people and growth in aid worker numbers to respond to the crises. The reliance on security assurances from host governments and good intentions of humanitarian work, respect of international humanitarian law and principles, and organization humanitarian mandates, to shield humanitarian operations and aid workers from untoward action waned. This was compounded by the rise in fundamentalism, extremism and terrorism in some contexts, with some non-state armed groups seeing humanitarian action and aid workers as legitimate targets for diverse reasons. This paper presents an overview of the changed security dynamics in humanitarian operational environments since the onset of the 21st century. It also explores the reasons and consequences of insecurity and the measures taken to address security risks in humanitarian operations.

Author Keywords:-Consequences of insecurity, Contemporary humanitarian security environment and Humanitarian Security Management.

Perceptions of Green Economy and Environmental Issues On Green Entrepreneurship Practices by Homestay Owners as A Form of Social Responsibility in Relation to The Tri Hita Karana Concept
Ni Kd Sioaji Yamawati, S.E., MBA, I Gusti Ayu Ratih Permata Dewi, S.E., M.Si, I Gde Agung Wira Pertama, S.E., M.M
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Bali has great potential in developing green entrepreneurship with access to resources: capital, technology and expertise as well as information that includes information about markets, technology and adequate regulations. In the context of tourism itself, homestays are a popular accommodation option, especially in the Ubud tourist area which is identic with tradition, culture and natural sustainability. Apart from that, the perception of local people who are very strong in customs, close to nature and uphold Tri Hita Karana makes environmental issues no longer something that is commonplace, apart from being able to improve the quality of nature, the application of green entrepreneurship is also able to attract the attention of international tourists. This research identifies whether perceptions about the green economy and environmental issues influence homestay owners in practicing sustainable and socially responsible business by evaluating the extent to which homestay owners pay attention to environmental issues considering their impact on business, as well as the extent to which their perceptions about the green economy play a role in establishing environmentally friendly business development and utilizing their business to contribute to environmental protection and social responsibility efforts. The analysis technique used in this research is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with a Partial Least Square (PLS) method approach. From the test results it was found that the variables perception of green economy (X1) and environmental issues (X2) had P values < 0.05, which means that perceptions of green economy and environmental issues had a positive effect on green entrepreneurship practices. The results of the analysis demonstrate that homestay owners have adopted environmentally friendly business practices in managing business operations including waste management and the use of eco-friendly materials related to operational cost efficiency and increasing the homestay's attractive image.

Author Keywords:-Environmental Issues, Green Economy, Green Entrepreneurship Practice, Tri Hita Karana

The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Achieving Competitive Advantage: A Field Study in Libyana Mobile Phone Company, Tripoli – Libya
Ali Meftah Husain Suliman, Khairi Ahmed R. Masaud
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HRM practices on achieving competitive advantage in Libyana Mobile Phone Tripoli -Libya. Understanding what competitive advantage and HRM practices are still an area of interpretation and constitutes research gaps that this study attempts to bridge. The problem of the study crystallized in the following question: What is the impact of HRM practices on the achievement of competitive advantage in Libyana Mobile Phone? The importance of the study comes in its usefulness to Libyana Mobile Phone-Libya managers by selecting HRM practices that achieve the company's competitive advantage. The study used the analytical descriptive method, with 306 questionnaires distributed of which 228 questionnaires were 74.5% valid for statistical analysis. The data was analyzed by SPSS.24 and AMOS.25. The results of a study are statistically significant impact of selection and recruitment, training and development and performance appraisal on achieving competitive advantage at level of significance at (α ≤ 0.05) in Libyana Mobile Phone. One of the study's recommendations is to keep pace with the development of HRM practices that create a competitive advantage for the company.

Author Keywords:-----------------------

Feats of Interpretative Virtuoso: Ancient Midrashic Rabbis on Qoheleth
Marc Grenier
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study looks at how ancient Midrashic rabbis interpreted the Book of Ecclesiastes (or Qoheleth). After exploring verse-by-verse Midrashic exegeses of the first three chapters, several patterns emerged. The basic observation is that Midrashic rabbis continually resorted to reinterpreting the original verse by expanding and modifying it in significant ways arguably beyond the scope of ancient Hebraic theology and cosmology. Rabbis appeared adamantly disinterested with culling out Qoheleth’s intended ancient Hebraic biblical meaning or interpreting it within its own terms. The overwhelming tendency was to revise and rewrite verses, many times by force-feeding them through other biblical texts in highly speculative feats of interpretative virtuoso. For the most part, there was little concerted effort to rationally explore the deeper philosophical and theological implications of Qoheleth verses. Lastly, the findings here confirm that there were no objections or questions raised about Solomonic authorship, no heretical intimations, and no references to contradictions internal or external to the text.

Author Keywords:-Qoheleth; Midrash; Ecclesiastes; textual meaning; ancient, rabbinical tradition; King Solomon; heretical views; rabbi; eisegesis; exegesis.