(September-October 2020)

The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on Climate Change, Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector of Ghanay
Alice Nubuor, Ernest Amankwah, David Otoo
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been argued to be a blessing and curse to most economies of the world, especially developing economies. Despite its growth enhancing attributes, FDI also serves as an avenue for dumping with subsequent effects on environmental quality. The current study examined the effect of manufacturing FDI and its effects on climate change. Measuring climate change by changes in carbon dioxide emissions, the study employed a time series data spanning years (1975 to 2014). Examination of the time series properties of the model revealed that all variables become stationary after first differencing, an I(1) process which warranted the construction the Johansen-Juselius test for cointegration. A long run association was established between the explanatory and carbon dioxide emissions. This warranted the use of the Vector Error Correction model as the main model of analysis and specifically in estimating the short run effect. The Vector error correction model revealed a significant short run relationship between previous year’s emissions and present emissions in the manufacturing sector. The study results were discussed in relation to literature and the directional effects are also checked against theoretical assumptions. In the short run, carbon dioxide and manufacturing FDI were the only variables in the model that proved significant. Generally, manufacturing FDI was found to have negative effect on carbon dioxide emissions in the short run, but positive effect in the long run. Following from the study findings, some constructive recommendations were made.

Author Keywords:- FDI, Carbon dioxide emissions, Manufacturing sector

The Statutory Regime for Resolution of Trade Disputes in Nigeria: A Critical Overview
Saka T. Abdulrahman, Salmanu M. Rilwanu
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Where two or more people are involved in contractual synergies, the inevitability of disagreement and conflicts is as comparable to oxygen in the daily life of humans. Workers across the world are alike in the sense that they desire recognition, satisfaction, fair wages and salaries, security of job, redress of wrongs and good working conditions. But often, the employers and the workers (through their unions) find themselves in sharp disagreement, which gives rise to trade disputes. It is the desire of every man to have and enjoy a stable environment and society. Nevertheless, disputes and conflicts are inseparable from human existence and society. Therefore, for man to have the desired society disputes and conflicts cannot be ignored, they must be managed and resolved. It is with this in mind that the legislature in Nigeria promulgated the Trade Dispute Act, Cap T8, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, 2004, which provides for the mechanisms for management of trade disputes in Nigeria. The thrust of this paper therefore is to examine those mechanisms in the Act, through which settlement of trade disputes could be achieved. The paper finds out that the mechanisms and the processes leading thereto are entangled into a lot of government influences through the office of the Minister of Labour, making achieving justice, in disputes involving the government, not very probable. The paper concludes by making recommendations, among others, for restructuring of the processes and mechanisms to be devoid of the enormous powers of the Minister of Labour, with a view to achieving justice devoid of government influence.

Author Keywords:- Labour, Trade disputes, National Industrial Court, Wages, Settlements

Public Policy or Government Programs? Are a Contribution to the Inclusion in Chile?
José Manuel Salum Tomé
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Given the importance of Public Policies for social transformation, the document explains why and under what circumstances they constitute a decisive factor to promote or inhibit social transformation. A policy is a purposeful, intentional, planned behavior, not just reactive, casual. It is set in motion with the decision to achieve certain objectives through certain means: it is an action with meaning. It is a process, a course of action that involves a whole complex set of decisions and operators. Politics is also a public communication activity. Hence, the purpose of this article is s be a guide in the understanding and analysis of what is meant by Public Policies, as well as contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms for their design and elaboration. That they have a clear and simple idea of what Public Policies are in a generalized context and the steps that must be carried out to implement them.

Author Keywords:-Public Policies, Quality, Social Transformation.

Perseverance: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Integration in Quebec
S. Hamlat
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The concept of perseverance is explored in the context of immigration to Quebec. The survey consists of a questionnaire and interviews on education, experience and success is used to collect information from new immigrants living in different cities in Quebec. The analysis of the results has highlights the obstacles, the actions taken to overcome them and the degree of success. In light of these results, a dimensional perseverance model was suggested.
Author Keywords:- integration, immigrants, Quebec, perseverance, willingness.

Role of Employee Gender on Customer Delight in the Sri Lankan Tourism Industry
K. I. Uresha , S.G. Obeyesekere
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A burning issue which has captivated the attention of scholars around the world is whether employee’s gender affects the service experience gained by the customer especially in the Tourism industry. Going beyond the customer experience and satisfaction, customer delight is considered as an emerging concept in the contemporary context. Reviewed literature provides various ideas on this issue in different contexts. Although the Tourism industry is considered as the backbone of the Sri Lankan economy this issue has not been theoretically argued or empirically tested in the Sri Lankan context. Owing to little research done related to employee gender differences on customer delight, a systematic empirical study was carried out to identify the effect of employee gender on customer delight to address the contextual and empirical gap and intellectual curiosity of authors. The study is aimed at discussing whether there is a significant difference in service provided by male and female employees which affects customer delight. Nature of the study is analytical, and unit of analysis was individual customers while time horizon was cross sectional. Survey method was utilized in the study where a self-administered questionnaire was used to gather primary data. A sample of 84 customers were considered utilizing convenient sampling method. Major findings of the study reveal that there’s a high preference of Sri Lankan customers to be served by female employees in the Tourism industry yet, there is no significant difference between the service provided by male and female employees on customer delight.
Author Keywords:- Employee Gender, Customer Delight, Tourism Industry, Sri Lanka.

Semantic and Pragmatic Interpretation of Figures of Speech by Trilingual Schizophrenics in Nakuru Level Five Hospital in Nakuru County, Kenya
Joseph Maina , Eliud Kiruji Kirigia , James Ogola Onyango
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Schizophrenic disorders manifest in some kind of linguistic deficits. Schizophrenics are believed to encounter two wide divisions of communication challenges: disturbances in comprehending the communication of others (receptive language) and problems in conveying meaning to others. In recent years, research uncovered distinct, alternating and common symptoms present in extreme diagnoses. These linguistic impairments are seen in semantic and pragmatics of language. The current study paid attention to the competence of trilingual schizophrenia patients in a number of non – literal language processing such as metaphors, irony and proverbs as well as pragmatic failures of the subjects. The study was premised on the fact that previous studies, which have mainly drawn their data from monolingual contexts, are not clear-cut and conclusive on how schizophrenia manifest in local African cultures and especially in trilingual contexts. The evidence adduced is documented in the way First Language, Kiswahili and English are used among schizophrenics. A phenomenological qualitative design was adopted buttressed by the Un-Cartesian Linguistic Theory and the Pragmatic Linguistic Model. The main instrument of data collection were open – ended interview, audio-visual recording and observation. Data was drawn from six purposely sampled subjects and subsequently analyzed descriptively. The transcribed data were evaluated for semantic and pragmatic deficiencies linked to the trilingual schizophrenics. The study’s finding indicate that the subjects exhibited difficulties in comprehending figures of speech including metaphors, irony, proverbs and idioms with a tendency to miss figurative meaning and accepting literal meaning, more so, in their second and third language as opposed to Mother Tongue. In the same note, subjects’ pragmatics appeared hampered in diverse ways which included heightened non-verbal references, pressure of speech; illogicality; poverty of speech; distractability and inappropriateness. This study will enlighten linguists, psychiatrics, psychologists, kin and kith and other people who interact directly or indirectly with the trilingual schizophrenics.
Author Keywords:- Neuro-functional system, lingual association, figurative language, trilingualism.

Factors that Affect Employee Performance in Kerinci District Education Office
Yulina Eliza, Asprizal, Usmar Ali, Joni Asrin
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of leadership, Work motivation and Work Discipline on Employee Performance in Kerinci District Education Office. This research is motivated by the leadership that is still partial and indecisive, low employee work discipline, low employee motivation, low and unstable performance achievements of agencies and employees. The research method with a quantitative approach with multiple linear regression methods. Data collection techniques with questionnaires, observation and interviews. The respondents of this study were 55 employees of the kerinci district education office . The sampling method Proportionate Random Sampling. Hypothesis testing is calculated with the IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results of this study found that leadership style partially had a significant effect on performance, work motivation partially had a significant effect on performance, work discipline partially had no significant effect on performance, on performance and from the ANOVA test, the value of Fcount = 139,881, with sign = 0,000 < 0,05, with Ftable = 3,17; Fcount> Ftable or 77.067> 2.840, Sign = 0.000 < α 0.05; then the leadership style, work environment, work discipline and motivation together (simultan) significantly influence the performance of Pondok Tinggi District Office Staff.
Author Keywords:- leadership, work motivstion, work discipline, employee performance.

Rhetorical Composition Worktext and Students' Writing Skills in English
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study determined the quality of Rhetorical Composition Worktext and the students’ creative writing performance. This was conducted at Sultan Kudarat State University, Tacurong City, Philippines. The English and Literature teachers, as well as, the Sophomore Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) students served as the participants of the study. This study was an experimental in type and utilized the pretest, posttest and random systematic sampling which represented the two level treatments: the rhetorical composition worktext (experimental group) and the traditional instruction (control group). The descriptive-evaluative design was also utilized to determine the quality of rhetorical composition worktext in terms of content, relevance, acceptability, and instructional quality. The Rhetorical Composition Worktext was qualitatively described as Very Satisfactory. The level of performance in composition writing of the control group based on their pretest and posttest scores were described as Low Performance and Moderate Performance respectively. The experimental group’s level of performance in composition writing based in their pretest and posttest scores were described as Low Performance and High Performance respectively. The control group’s level of performance in composition writing revealed that there is a significant difference between the levels of performance in composition writing in favor of posttest. The experimental group’s level of performance in composition writing revealed that there is a significant difference between the levels of performance in composition writing. The control and experimental groups’ level of performance in composition writing revealed that there is a significant difference between the levels of performance in their composition writing. The results showed that Rhetorical Composition Worktext is applicable and can be used as a tool in developing the composition writing activities of the students. The Work text in Rhetoric should be used in teaching Creative Writing for the development of students’ writing skills; there should be a serious deliberation on Logos for students to be trained in using good reasoning; and writing courses should be established to discourage students’ frequent errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization and paragraphing.
Author Keywords:- Rhetoric, composition, rhetorical composition, ethos, pathos, logos, writing, skills, writing skills.

The Perils of Social Insecurity on the Economic Growth of Tourism Industry in the Niger Delta: Revisiting the Years of Turmoil, 2009- 2011
Blessing Okwuchi Nwagba,PhD, CHUKWU, Christian Chima,PhD , Grace A.T Scent, PhD
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The study focuses on the impacts of the perils of social insecurity on the economic growth of tourism industry in the Niger Delta region to halt what transpired during the years of turmoil, 2009- 2011 by no means happened again. There was the boom of an internal arms race, armed gangsters, arson, assassinations, organized kidnapping, torture and other threats which negatively affected the growth of the tourism industry. The study adopted a survey and ex-post facto research designs. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 345 respondents for the study (Cross River, Delta and Rivers States). Among the findings, it was revealed that the prevalence of poverty, unequal access to resources, large youth populations with limited access to education or jobs, and other social factors were not unconnected with this unceasing social instability in the region. Further, that the emergence of the perils of social insecurity altered the economic structures in the region as people no longer demanded for tourism services for fear of being molested, kidnapped or killed. Many residents lived in perpetual fear of the continued agitations and youth restiveness. In addition, government security forces reprisal attacks restricted tourism investors and tourists both domestic and international, and this led to the slump in the economic growth of tourism industry in the region. Based on these findings the study concluded that the downward trend in the economic growth of tourism industry was due to the perils of social insecurity as investors relocated their investments to safe zones away from the Niger Delta Region. As a result, the study recommended amongst others, that since tourism industry has become one of the fastest growing economic sectors, with its total contribution to the global economy growing faster than other significant sectors such as financial and business services, transport and manufacturing, government must ensure that appropriate security is assured and guaranteed.
Author Keywords:- Economic growth; Tourism; Peril of social insecurity; Agitations and Youth restiveness; Niger Delta Region

Factors that Affect Task Commitment of Employees, Kelurahan in the Sub-District of Lubuk Sikarah Solok City
Yulina Eliza , Asperizal , Zulfia Oktafianti , Hernenti , Epa Mulyani
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aims to determine and describe empirically the effect of incentives, job satisfaction, work culture on the duty commitments of village employees in the Lubuk Sikarah sub-district in the city of Solok. The targets in this study are employees of sub-districts in Lubuk Sikarah. Data collection techniques in this study by questionnaire to 52 respondents with the determination of the sample based on the Proportional Stratified Random Sampling technique. Based on this research on the variables X1, X2, X3 against y, the F-test obtained the value of Fcount > Ftable (11.047 > 4.03), while the significance value of 0.000 was smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that the variables X1, X2, X3 simultaneously affect the variable y. It is known that R Square is 0.639 or 63.9%, which means the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is 63.9 %. This relationship will be perfect (100 %) or close if there are other independent variables included in the model. In other words the variables X1, X2 and X3 give a joint effect of about 63.9 % to the variable Y, while the remaining 33.1 % is influenced by other variables. For the X1 variable with respect to y, the t-test obtained the value of t > t table (2.739 > 2,000), while the significance value of 0.009 was smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that the variable X1 partially influences the variable Y. For the X2 variable with respect to y, the t-test obtained the value of t > t table (4.327 > 2,000), while the significance value of 0.000 was smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that the variable X2 partially influences the variable Y. There is the variable X3 on y, the t-test obtained tcount > ttable (2.197 > 2,000), while the significance value of 0.033 is smaller than α (0.05). So it can be concluded that the variable X3 partially influences the variable Y Kelurahan in the Sub-District of Lubuk Sikarah, Solok City.
Author Keywords:- Incentives, Job Satisfaction, Work Culture, Task Commitment.

Reservation Status in Higher Education Enrolment – Aishe Data Analysis
Tushar Kanti Ghara
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Originally reservation was only given to SCs and STs but was later extended to OBCs in 1987 after the implementation of the Mandal Commission report. There are creamy layer income caps on EWS (Economically weaker sections) and OBCs (Other backward classes) and no income limits exist for members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The category-wise enrolment and its percentage with respect to total enrolment have been calculated. It has been calculated for all 3 category SC, ST and OBC and for all the states and union territories. Enrolment models for SC and comparison of the states with respect to ST and OBC enrolment have been made. Cluster analysis shows that north east states including Lakshadweep are dominating in SC, ST & OBC enrolment.
Author Keywords:- SC, ST, OBC, Enrolment proportion, Regression, Slope, Cluster analysis.

Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Settlement Size (Urban & Rural) on Vital Registration Coverage in Gombe State, Nigeria
Abbas, Adam M , I.Y.A. Kazaure , B.J. Ananya
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This paper focuses on comparing the impact of settlement size/residential sectors (urban and rural) on birth registration coverage in Gombe state. It thus, assesses the levels of spatial accessibility and efficiency of the vital registration centres to the people of Gombe State in different locations in six sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs). Reconnaissance survey of the study area was undertaken and a questionnaire/interview schedule was administered to 1560 respondents. In-depth interviews were also conducted at the vital registration centres, LGA headquarters, emirs and chiefs’ palaces. The data obtained were discussed and presented using simple descriptive statistical techniques like percentages, tables and charts. The results reveal that urban areas which are mostly the LGA headquarters lead in terms of birth registration coverage. Major problems encountered by the rural areas include inadequate knowledge on the importance of the registration/birth certificates and of registration centres which are inadequate and located on the large and dispersed settlements of the study area to cover large expanse of land. Thus, accessibility to the registration centres and lack of knowledge on the importance of birth certificate hinder effective registration in the rural areas of the state. It is therefore recommended that massive enlightenment campaigns be carried out to the door steps of the rural basket and marginalized areas and more registration centres be established so as to increase accessibility.
Author Keywords:- Birth Registration Coverage, Registration Centre, Accessibility, Residential Sector, Urban, Rural.

In the Search for a Precise Objective and True Definition of Systems
Gustavo de Jesús Pérez Durán
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The objective of this research was to determine if there is any definition of a system other than that proposed by Bertalanffi L. (1968) and for this, the existing literature from 1968 to date, related to the systems, was reviewed, but only the cases that were considered most relevant are commented. From this review it is concluded that most of the researchers use the original definition of Bertalanffi as a starting point. However, when analyzing it carefully, it is concluded that it is applicable to any object or entity existing in the world, and therefore, it does not define anything specific, nor does it allow distinguishing a system from something that is not. In this paper, a definition of a system is developed that is specific and allows systems to be distinguished from other entities that are not, and the various types of systems are analyzed to contrast the definition and verify that it is general and specific and allows to unequivocally determine whether something it is a system, or it is not.
Author Keywords:-System, organization, structure, process, product,

Housing Finance Accessibility: Empirical Evidence from Lagos State, Nigeria
Olumide Ayeniyo
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The study assessed the differences in residents’ level of accessibility to housing finance in Lagos metropolis with a view to providing information that could enhance housing delivery in the study area. The objectives of the research are to identify and examine sources of housing finance in different residential densities in Lagos metropolis, examine the socio-economic characteristics of residents in the study area, examine factors influencing the residents’ level of accessibility to housing finance in the different residential densities and examine the relationship between residents’ socio-economic characteristics and the level of accessibility to housing finance in the different residential densities of the study area. The multi–stage sampling technique was adopted for the study. A total of 535 sets of questionnaire were administered, out of which 475 copies were completed and retrieved, representing 88.8% return-rate. The study established that stable employment, possession of land and title to land, high level of financial involvement in housing projects are the major factors that significantly influence housing finance accessibility in the study area.
Author Keywords:-Housing, Finance and Accessibility,

Bhutan 1960s to 1980s: From Civic to Ethnic Nationalism
Bindhiya Rai
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Author Keywords:---------------,

Sociological and Psychological Condition of the Inhabitants of Old Age Homes in Dhaka: A Statistical Approach
Mohammad Ahsan Uddin
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Rapid growing of modernization in Bangladesh has affected the people in many ways. The traditional combined family in the culture of Bangladeshi society is disappearing slowly and the increase in nuclear families forces the older adults to live in old age homes. This study is intended to know the sociological and psychological condition of the inhabitants of old age homes. Their previous income, disease status, loneliness, and depression status are analyzed with the help of popular statistical models like multiple linear regression, binary logistic regression, Poisson regression, and multinomial logistic regression. The mental illness of the respondents is found associated with, among others, age, gender, whether spouse alive, recreational satisfaction, and morning walking. The study reflects that increase in age is highly associated with disease status, increased loneliness, and depression. So, the caring and support should be increased to them with their increase in age. The habit of smoking needs to be demotivated since it is responsible for occurring diseases. As morning walking is found effective in reducing both loneliness and depression of the respondents, it should be promoted in the old homes. The study suggests to increase quality time passing activities to the male respondents and the inhabitants whose spouses are no more because they feel lonelier than others.
Author Keywords:-Old age homes, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Binary logistic regression, Poisson regression, Multinomial logistic regression.,

The Influence of Organizational Culture and Work Motivation on Employee Performance through Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Agus Solikhin, Nazief Nirwanto, Boge Triatmanto
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on OCB and hotel employee performance in Surakarta City and analyze the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on employee performance when mediated by OCB. The population of this study is the population of this study are Sahid Jaya Hotel employees, Sahid Kusuma Hotel, Lor In Hotel and Alila Hotels in the city of Surakarta, with a total sample of 241 employees and respondents selected using simple random sampling technique. Data analysis techniques used are Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results of the study show that organizational culture and work motivation influence employee performance. Organizational citizenship behavior are able to mediate the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on employee performance.
Author Keywords:-organizational culture, work motivation, OCB and employee performance.

Effect of Employee Competency, Organizational Commitment and Workload on Employee Performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province
Yulina Eliza, Desi Masrisal, Dewi Insani, Yanti Jasvia
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
This study aims to determine the effect of employee competency, organizational commitment and workload on employee performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province. The method used in this research is quantitative research with a associative approach. The population in this study were all employees of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province. The sample used as many as 81 people using proportionate stratified random sampling techniques. The data analysis technique is multiple linear regression. The results showed that: (1) Employee competency has a positive and significant effect on employee performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province, (2) Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on employee performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province, (3) Workload has a negative and significant effect on employee performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province, (4) Employee competency, organizational commitment and workload simultaneously has a significant effect on employee performance of Public Works and Spatial Planning (PUPR) Service of West Sumatra Province.
Author Keywords:-Employee Competency, Organizational Commitment, Workload, Employee Performance