Volume 5 ~ Issue 6, November-December (2023)

Almetrics Attention Score -2020 showing Three Articles in Earth Sciences: An Overview
P. Susheela
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF
Altmetrics are alternative metrics used to measure the impact and attention that research articles receive in online spaces, including social media, news outlets, and other digital platforms. These metrics complement traditional citation-based metrics by providing insights into the broader societal impact and engagement with research beyond academic circles. In the Top 100 Altmetrics ranking for the year 2020, there were three Earth Science research articles that received considerable online attention. Global human-made exceeds all living biomass, Attention Score 4483, Published in Nature Journal in December 2020,Citations 261.Multiple subglacial water bodies at the south pole of Mars unveiled by new Mars, Attention Score 4427,Published in Nature Astronomy Journal in September 2020, Citations 113. Record-Setting Ocean Warmth Continued in 2019, Attention Score 3954, Published in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences Journal in January 2020, Citations119. Out of these three highly-attended articles, two were published in the prestigious Nature Journal, which indicates the high level of engagement and interest in research published in that journal. The Nature Journal is we-regarded in the scientific community, and its articles often gain significant attention due to their impact on various fields of science. Altmetrics can be valuable tool in assessing the broader impact of research beyond traditional citation metrics. They offer insights into how research is being shared and discussed online, which can be indicative of its societal and practical implications. While citation metrics remain important for evaluating scholarly influence, altmetrics provide a more comprehensive view of the attention and reach of scientific publications in the digital age.

Author Keywords:- Altmetrics, Twitter Mention, Online Attention, Citations, Mendeley, News Outlet

Study on Factors Influence Penang as A Food Paradise
Noor Dasreena Shukria Binti Abdul Shukur
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Food festival is a festival event held by Penang Government by recent years. From this event, Penang state was becoming a popular state among foreign tourists. Foreign Tourist travels to Malaysia not only for vacation but it is because of delicious foods around the Penang State. Foreign tourists really like to taste local foods such as Mee Goreng Mamak, Karipap, Nasi Kandar and etc. The research objectives are the price factor, varieties of foods factor and location factors. There will be 100 respondents of foreign tourist will randomly choose for our research scope. This food paradise festival gives more importance to State, Government, Tourists, and food stalls located in Penang. The limitations of this research are time constraints among foreign tourists. More than that, our research obtains information from 100 respondents and it may difficult to obtain the feedback from tourists. Other than that, for foreign tourist’s feedback we are using data analysis method to get their satisfaction over foods in Penang. This section describes the method or approach of research used to collect and analyze the data in order to achieve the objectives of the study.

Author Keywords:-Factor; Influence; Food Paradise; Penang; Tourists

Security Management and Risk Management Strategies in Humanitarian Field Environments: A Conceptual Analytical Approach
Michael Munyaradzi Makova(PhD)
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The paper presented an overview of security management in humanitarian field environments. It critically examined security risk management strategies applied by humanitarian organizations in insecure environments. The paper asserts that the advancement of contemporary humanitarian security management framework discourse is inextricably linked to the increased violence against aid workers. This was on the background of surge in humanitarian crises primarily caused by armed conflict, which displaced millions of people. The advancement led to the development and implementation of systematic humanitarian security risk management strategies to lower security risks in order to meaningfully operate in insecure environments. Addressing security risks in humanitarian operations entails embracing a mix of security risk management strategies suitable to the environment and context. The aim is to lower security risks to levels that allow safe and secure humanitarian operations. The article is guided by the conceptual analysis approach. The approach examines contemporary humanitarian security management framework advancement in field environments. It critically explores and analyzes the different dimension, concepts, and perspectives of security risk management in humanitarian environments. Sound humanitarian security risk management strategies allow humanitarian personnel to stay and deliver, enabling humanitarian work to continue in insecure environment

Author Keywords:-Humanitarian security management, Security strategy and Security risk management strategies.

Harnessing Innovations for Sustainable Energy Management in the Built Environment: A Review of Space Syntax, ICT, and PSO Approaches
Amin Jafarvand Zaher, Sahar Nejatian, Shayan Roofigari Haghighat
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This review paper delves into the paramount issue of sustainability and its close alignment with energy consumption control, exploring three dynamic methodologies that play pivotal roles in shaping a more sustainable future. Space syntax analysis offers insights into optimizing urban and architectural layouts, enhancing energy efficiency by guiding strategic lighting placement and resource-efficient urban design. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) empowers both urban planners and architects, fostering sustainability through data-driven decision-making, efficient resource management, and smart city solutions. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) emerges as a potent tool for fine-tuning architectural parameters to significantly reduce energy consumption while ensuring occupant comfort. By elucidating the profound impacts of these methodologies, this paper sheds light on how they collectively contribute to the overarching goal of a more sustainable built environment.

Author Keywords:-Sustainability, Energy consumption, Space syntax, Swarm Optimization, Information and Communication technology

Effect of Board Knowledge Capital on Value of Listed Companies in Nigeria. The Moderating Role of CEO Financial Expertise
OSAZEVBARU Henry Osahon, OGWU Kevwe Rita
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The study investigated the effect of board knowledge capital on market value of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria and further examined the moderating influence of CEO financial expertise. The study, anchored on the agency theory, adopted the cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs and obtained relevant data from financial statements of sampled manufacturing companies for the period 2012 to 2021. Findings of the study indicated that board educational qualification, and board financial expertise have a negative effect on firm market value. The study further revealed that board work experience and CEO financial expertise have positive effect on market value of listed manufacturing companies. Moreover, it was discovered that CEO financial expertise mitigates the negative effect of board financial expertise on firm market value. .The study concludes that board knowledge capital influences the market value of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria and recommends amongst others that appointment of directors should be based on relevant work experience, and financial expertise rather than educational qualification.

Author Keywords:-Market value, Tobin Q, Educational Qualification, Work Experience, CEO Financial Expertise.

Community Development Through Ecotechnopreneurship Integration Program in Borisallo Village (Unismuh Makassar, Indonesia-Doctor Nueng Intercare Crabi School, Thailand)
Muhammad Ikbal, Nur Azmi, Fityatun Usman, Pichisine Koaloune, Dian Pramana Putra
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The potential of the forest makes Borisallo Village have various natural resources that become commodities for the local community. Forest honey and brown sugar products are typical commodities in Borisallo Village, Borisallo people have been hereditary forest bee honey hunters and brown sugar makers from palm sap where the results are sold directly in roadside huts or sold to collectors who come directly to the location. As one of the palm sugar and honey producing areas in South Sulawesi, Borisallo is expected to become a center for quality palm sugar and honey. From the results of observations and in-depth interviews with honey and palm sugar farmers, community groups, and government officials, 2 community group partners were identified to be the object of the program. This activity aims to assist the forest honey hunter group of Borisallo Village in managing the production of forest honey with good quality and quantity according to standards and in a sustainable manner, providing packaging that has quality standards, making labels on product packaging, and marketing honey to the community. The target to be achieved is to produce forest honey with attractive product packaging and equipped with consumption eligibility from the Food and Drug Administration. The method that will be used in achieving the objectives is training, coaching and mentoring for the business group of forest honey hunters in Borisallo Village. The problem of this palm sugar entering the modern market is that the printing equipment still uses bamboo sticks cut at the base and coconut shells that lack prestige value in the eyes of consumers. This causes relatively limited access to product marketing due to unattractive shapes and packaging. Based on this, we, the proposing team, took the initiative to propose a Community Development Program through an ecotechnopreneurship Integration Program in Borisallo Village (University of Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia-Doctor Nueng Intercare Crabi School, Thailand.

Author Keywords:-ecotechnopreneurship _2; Development_3; Virtual Information

The Influence of Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Macroeconomic Variables on Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Market Asian Countries
Wina, Indriyani Febri Nur Rohmawati, Muhmammad Lazuardi Abimanyu
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The aim of this research is to analyze and see what factors influence Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Emerging Market Asian Countries. By using good governance indicator variables, namely Control of Corruption and Political Stability, as well as macroeconomic variables such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation and interest rates. The method used in this research is quantitative and qualitative methods using secondary and primary data. The quantitative method used is secondary data, panel data regression analysis method, with a combination of time series data and cross section data. This research uses time-series data, namely data for the 2010-2021 time period, and cross-sectional data for 5 emerging market countries in Asia, namely Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China. The primary method used in research is interviewing sources with experts related to the results of research data analysis. This research found that GDP had an insignificant positive effect, inflation had an insignificant negative effect, interest rates had an insignificant negative effect, Control of Corruption had a significant positive effect, and Political Stability had an insignificant positive effect on FDI.

Author Keywords:-Foreign Direct Invesment, Good Governance, Emerging Market, Macro Economics

Study of The Effect of Lighting Levels and Wall Colour on Work Productivity (Case Study: Food Cardboard Box Folding in Climate Room LPSKE UNS)
Bambang Suhardi, Muhammad Raihan, Irwan Iftadi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Lighting levels and wall color are thought to have an influence on work productivity, as both are aspects of the physical work environment that can affect visual comfort and psychological atmosphere for workers. This study aims to analyze the effect of lighting levels and wall color on work productivity and find the best combination of results. Through a 3x3 factorial experimental design, the study population consisted of 108 final year students Industrial Engineering in 2019 at Sebelas Maret University. Research used convenience sampling method, 16 subjects were selected as research participants. The observed variables were lighting levels at 75 lux, 100 lux, and 125 lux, as well as wall colors Sage Green, Honey Yellow, and White. Work productivity was measured by folding food cardboard boxes, as a simulated work activity, and the results were measured based on the number of boxes successfully folded in a 10-minute interval. Data processing used Two-Way ANOVA and Regression Response Surface to identify the influence and best results of the variables. The results revealed that lighting level and wall color each had a significant influence on work productivity, with a significance value of 0.000. In addition, the interaction between lighting level and wall color is also significant on work productivity, with a significance value of 0.005. The best result found was using a lighting level of 125 lux and a wall color of White.

Author Keywords:-Lighting Level, Wall Color, Work Productivity, Environmental Ergonomics, Experimental Design

The Power of Recognition: Unveiling Recognition as a Motivational Catalyst in Tlokweng Land Board
Kelly Masoto, Bernard Chileshe
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Recognition is a potent incentive to boost performance, job happiness, and employee engagement. In this study, 42 employees' survey responses on their opinions on recognition as a motivator were analysed to gather data on the significance of recognition as a motivating element inside the Tlokweng Land Board. The findings show that 59.5% of workers believe that being appreciated is a motivating element, underscoring the need to recognize and appreciate employees' efforts and achievements. However, 38.1% of the workers gave unfavorable feedback, indicating the existence of other influencing factors. There is room for improvement since different employees are recognised at different rates, with 33.3% of them reporting never feeling recognised. Additionally, while awards and appreciation letters were the primary motivators for most employees, 35.7% believed that other bases for recognition were significant, emphasizing the need for tailored recognition programs. The perception of recognition uniformity was divided, suggesting potential disparities in the distribution. Nonetheless, the majority of employees (85.7%) perceive recognition to positively impact their performance. This study underscores the value of recognition as a motivational catalyst and provides insights for organisations seeking to enhance employee motivation and engagement.

Author Keywords:-Job satisfaction, Reward, Recognition, Work motivation

Differences Between Curves in Computer Graphics and Their Rendering
Svetlana Mijakovska, Filip Popovski, Roberto Pasic, Ivo Kuzmanov
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The aim of this paper is to give a definition of different curves that are used in computer graphics and the method of their rendering. We will give a mathematic describe of different curves and their main characteristic. We will describe several techniques commonly used for rendering curves.

Author Keywords:-Curves, Surfaces, Implicit curves, Explicit curves, Parametric curves, Bezier curves, B-spline curves, Rendering.

Benchmarking Approach on Food Sustainability Assessment Using Composite Indicators
Giani Grădinaru1, Bogdan Florin Matei
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This article defines a new approach to measuring global food security and sustainability through a composite indicator developed on three layers: availability, diversity and environment, and introduces an elimination system that motivates countries to replicate their commitments to protect and revitalise the food industry. This would translate to a clearer and more focused view on the most critical issues that require urgent solutions, such as ensuring the basic needs of their populations, diversifying the existing variety of food products and nutritional values, and implementing innovative and sustainable process flows. To meet the scope, the OECD methodology was applied to the implementation of composite indicators that would rank 176 countries based on the three pillars. The results indicate the dominance of the European countries, among the other 99 eligible countries, when it comes to adopting sustainable solutions for their food industry, and efficient measures for the population and the market. The final ranking shows its representativeness compared to other existing composite indicators, as 85% of the top 20 countries are represented in at least one other existing food index.

Author Keywords:-Bioeconomy, composite indicator, food security, nutrition, sustainability

Women’s Oral Music Traditions in South Asia: A Stage for Voicing Critical Consciousness on Societal Dominant Practices
Dr. Subash Giri
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Women are active bearers and carriers of South Asian oral music traditions and heritage. Women’s musical performances are intrinsic to the social and cultural life of South Asian societies, including festivals, ritual celebrations, life-cycle rites, and agricultural production spaces. Apart from entertainment and continuation of socio-cultural and religious practices, these performances evoke and communicate deep meaning and messages about various social, cultural, and political issues of South Asian societies such as women’s social status, family position, occupational constrains, day-to-day experiences, as well as marriage, kinship, caste, sexuality, social roles, relationships, identities, and sociocultural constitution of gender. Based on Paulo Freire’s “critical consciousness” theory, existing scholarship on women and music in South Asia, and musical examples drawn from an ethnographic fieldwork, this article examines how these oral music performances have been playing a role of theatrical space to exhibit critical consciousness on women’s various real social issues in South Asian societies and how these music traditions have become a powerful tool to speak against the socially, religiously, culturally, and politically established discriminatory dominant practices.

Author Keywords:-Women, Oral music traditions, South Asia, Critical consciousness, Socio-cultural issues

Analysis of Ecobiological Aspects of Coastal Waters for The Development of Fish Cultivation Businesses in Floating Net Cages
Rustam, Muhammad I. Wamnebo
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The aim of this study; To find out the ecobiological aspects of waters for Tilapia cultivation activities in floating net cages. The method used in this research is the water observation method such as physical, chemical and biological parameters of waters. Determining the carrying capacity of waters is an approach based on the availability of dissolved oxygen. The results of the observations showed that oxygen levels in the waters were observed for 24 hours with an interval of 3 hours. The average oxygen level was 6.5 ppm, while the minimum level desired by cultivated organisms was 3.6 ppm. This means that oxygen availability is 2.9 ppm. It is known that the volume of water available for aquaculture activities is 1,946,280 m3, so the available oxygen capacity is 263.75 kg O2. Thus, the capacity of the waters to accommodate organic waste is 1,318.75 kg. If the percentage of feed provided is an average of 5% per day, then the carrying capacity of the aquatic environment for cultivation = 26.375 kg or 26.38 tons of Tilapia. The production level for cages measuring 2 x 2 x 2 m3 = 0.25 tons/cage, then the maximum number of cages that can be operated under carrying capacity conditions = 105 cages

Author Keywords:-Floating net cages, Cultivation, Tilapia, and water carrying capacity

Effect of Genre Music on Concentration
Nur Oktaviani, Bambang Suhardi, Dan Rahmaniyah Dwi Astuti
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Music consists of various types based on their respective characteristics. Previous research has suggested that music has an influence on human concentration. However, from various types of music, whether all music has an influence on concentration or only certain music depends on a person's musical taste. Concentration refers to the concentration of thought which includes accuracy (precision) and speed of reaction time. This study aims to analyze the effect of music type on accuracy and reaction time on concentration and determine the type of music that has the most effect on concentration. The experimental design used is repeated treatment design with 10 research subjects who are Industrial Engineering students Class of 2019. The variables used in this study are the type of music consisting of pop, jazz, dangdut, rock and classical as the independent variable and concentration as the dependent variable. Concentration is measured by the Stroop Test as a cognitive task and the test results measured in the form of accuracy and reaction time to the Stroop Test. Data processing was done with repeated measure anova and Friedman test. The results of data processing show that the type of music has an influence on reaction time with a sig value of 0.044. The type of music that has the most influence on reaction time is the type of music preferred, namely pop music. While the test results of the effect of music type on accuracy have a sig value of 0.044.

Author Keywords:-Music Type, Concentration, Stroop Test, Experimental Design

Breaking the Social Wall of Barrenness: The Nigerian Question
Dr. Linus Nwoye
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Globalization, also called diffusion in social sciences, is the ability of what happens in one society to also recur in another society. It is for the wonder of science and medicine that a journey begun by Lesley and John Brown in 1978 on test tube baby has today gone global. In vitro fertilization offers childless couples the opportunity of having their own baby. This occurs when the egg of a woman is externally fertilized by the sperm of a man before inserting same back into the womb of the woman, sometimes hired or rented. Further, advances in medical science have today made it possible to know the sex of the baby in the womb before delivery. This feat is achieved through ultrasound or amniocentesis. Advances in medical technology have also made it possible for certain persons to have a desire for a particular sex and go for it. Other methods used in arresting the psychological trauma that surrounds childlessness in man include frozen embryo, surrogate mothers, sperm and egg donation as well as cloning of human cells. We also owe it to the advantage of new discoveries in medical science that puzzles surrounding unwanted pregnancies are today resolved through deoxybonucleric acid, also known as DNA. We may also weigh it in on the treasure-strove that incidences of sickle cell anemia are today minimized in society through genotype. Genotype is the sum total of the genetic instructions that an organism receives from its parents. Among the objectives of this research include; to identify the major causes of barrenness; to ascertain how new discoveries in medicine provide soccour to couples desperately in need of their own children, to find out if there are challenges that come with the new scientific discoveries and to make recommendations on how the discoveries can be taken to the zone of comfort and confidence. All the data generated in this research endeavour are via secondary sources, while functionalist perspective represents the platform on which findings are discussed.

Author Keywords:----------------------------

The Influence of People’s Business Credit (KUR) and Digital Transformation on the Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Sempu District through Financial Management
Dyah Mastika Fatmalia, Isti Fadah, Sumani
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study intends to analyze the influence of digital transformation and People's Business Credit (KUR) on the development of MSMEs in Sempu District, Banyuwangi Regency, involving intervening variables for financial management. This study employs a quantitative approach with purposive sampling approaches. The research sample consisted of 97 respondents, all of whom were MSME owners who used people's business credit (KUR) and were distributed around the Sempu District area. To test the correlation between variables, the analysis method use Structural Equation modeling (SEM) with SmartPLS 3.0 software. The development of MSMEs is the dependent variable, digital transformation and People's Business Credit (KUR) are the independent variables, and financial management is the intervening variable. The findings of the study indicate that digital transformation and People's Business Credit (KUR) have significant effects on financial management. The development of MSMEs in Sempu District is significantly impacted by financial management, which also acts as a mediator between the effects of digital transformation and People's Business Credit (KUR).

Author Keywords:-Capital structure, People's Business Credit (KUR), Digital Transformation, Financial Management, MSME Development

Regulating Private Security Industry: Experience from South Africa, Kenya and Tanzania
Eric Sambu
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Private security industry has grown exponentially in the African continent, driven by many factors. Regulatory mechanisms are however varied and appears to be playing catch-up as the industry grows faster than the regulations. This paper therefore explores the regulatory regimes in three African countries: South Africa, Kenya and Tanzania, using comparative analysis. It is a qualitative study that reviewed the regulations and complemented this with interviews on participants selected using convenient and purposive sampling. The study concludes that the three countries have similar challenges in the sector but apply varied approaches with some lessons each country can borrow from each other to improve their regulatory regimes. It recommends institutional, legal, and administrative changes for its effective practice and better resources to coordinate the efforts, from state agencies to trade associations and companies.

Author Keywords:-Private security; Regulation; South Africa; Kenya; Tanzania.

Financial inclusion and Performance of the Small and Medium Enterprises in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Godwin Emmanuel OYEDOKUN, Abosede Adebola AMOO
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The study examined financial inclusion and Performance of the SMEs in Ibadan, Oyo State. The financial inclusion theories and Perking Order Theory served as the theoretical background upon which this study was based. The target population for this study was made up of business centres, grocery stores and fashion houses in the Ibadan Southwest Local Government Area, Oyo State. This study adopted a quantitative survey technique because it was more explanatory and related directly to the SMEs that were selected for the research. Data was collected through primary sources with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain relevant information from the participants as well as secondary sources. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software programme was used to analyze the data. From the research findings, it was discovered that performance of the selected SMEs was influenced positively using financial inclusion parameters of financial service access, usage and quality as measurement. This study concluded that SMEs are crucial to the growth of the country as they use local raw materials and technology, thereby assisting in the realization of the goal of selfreliance and poverty alleviation. Finally, the study recommended that Government and financial institutions should create a comprehensive strategy to manage the wealth creating SMEs programs they have started and programs started should be properly funded in a sustainable manner and that in improving the socioeconomic development of Nigeria such as eradicating poverty, creating jobs, advancing human development and enhancing social welfare for the people, government should formulate financial inclusion methods aimed at facilitating the SMEs performance.

Author Keywords:-Financial inclusion, Financial institutions, SMEs, Performance, Strategy

MCP Modernization: Efforts to Empower Farmers by Increasing Milk Production and Price Acceptance During the FMD Pandemic
Marina Sulistyati, M. Ali Mauludin, Hermawan
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) attacks dairy herds, causing high economic losses. The decline in productivity has affected the production system and reduced milk production and quality. Efforts that can be made to encourage milk productivity include empowering farmers through mentoring and training so that behavioral changes occur in cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor aspects related to milk yield. The research method is a survey. Sampling used a saturation sample of 194 respondents. The analytical method used is descriptive quantitative to show that farmer empowerment is sufficient (70%) based on capacity, strength, and independence dimensions. The lowest milk yield in July 2022 is 689/Kg/15 days/farmer; by December 2022, it will increase to 1,068.1/Kg/15 days/farmer. This occurred because PMR had a slope, and respondents understood how to manage PMR. Farmers' income from January 2022 to December 2002 fluctuated due to PMK. The increase in milk prices is not proportional to the decrease in milk output, so farmers' total income decreased sharply during the PMK period. Empowering farmers through MCP modernization does not automatically improve fresh milk quality, but it effectively motivates farmers to produce better-quality milk and accept milk prices.

Author Keywords:-Empowerment, milk collection point, milk production, milk price acceptance

The Role of Spiritans in The Integral Development in Zimbabwe: Key to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS)
Fr. Amadi, Igbokwe Anthony C. S. Sp
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

In many previous articles where development was discussed, the authors’ emphasis was either on economic development, physical development or personality development. This article focused on the integral development of the people of Zimbabwe by the Spiritan missionaries. The article which narrated the origin of the congregation, also described its charism, and traced the route these Spiritans took up to Zimbabwe as well as the activities they carried out to bring about the expected and the desired development in Zimbabwe. In the course of this discussion, it was discovered that Spiritans were far more ahead of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nation, yet they proved to be in full compliance. It was also discovered that development is a right of everyone and essentially a collaborative activity. Though material and physical development is good, emphasis should always be the development of people both old and young rich and poor alike. Some recommendations were made.

Author Keywords:----------------------

Empirical Investigation of the Effect of Capital Flight on Nigerian Economic Growth
Orenuga, Babatunde, Oyedokun, Godwin Emmanuel
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

The study focused on the effect of capital flight on Nigerian economic growth. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design by utilizing secondary data obtained from the CBN Statistical Bulletin, NBS, IMF and World Bank, using time series data from 2002 to 2021. The study utilized panel data techniques for a twentyyear period (2002 to 2021) to explore the effect of capital outflows, external debt, external reserve, and exchange rate. The findings of the study revealed that capital outflow (CO) has a negative relationship with Nigerian economic growth and the effect is significant (ꞵ= -0.289965; P-Value = 0.006). External debt (ED) has a negative correlation with Nigerian economic growth and the effect is insignificant (ꞵ= -0.088933; P-Value = 0.7899). External reserve (ER) has negative relationship with Nigerian economic growth and the effect is significant (ꞵ= -57032.05; P-Value =0.0329). Exchange rate (EX) has a negative correlation with Nigerian economic growth and the effect is insignificant (ꞵ= -0.235292; P-Value = 0.422). The study concluded that capital flight affect significantly affects Nigerian economic growth. The study therefore recommended that Government should enact law to protect and encourage Nigerians involved in capital flight in the past to repatriate their stolen money/ laundered money back home and invest them in the real sector of the economy and there must be a limit on foreign borrowing tendencies of government at all levels and agencies as well as private sector organizations. In addition, foreign borrowing must be limited to only infrastructural development desires of the country. Nigeria Government should stop importation of petroleum products into the country and fix all the four (4) refineries in the country to reduce foreign currency spent on importation of petroleum products.

Author Keywords:-Capital flight, Capital outflow, Economic growth, Exchange rate, External debt, External reserve

Selvi Kasman, Rosta Minawati, Ahmad Akmal, Martarosa, Jufri, Sri Sundari, Sriyanto, Ahmad Bahrudin
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

This study is important because the Gandang Tambua is a type of traditional percussion musical instrument in the Minangkabau culture of West Sumatra. GandangTambua is a popular musical instrument in Minagkabau society. The Gandang Tambua performance is able to provide performance and enthusiasm for those who hear it. The existence of art displayed in the GandangTambua performance is at traditional and cultural events, such as parading at a wedding party. The Gandang Tambua performance consists of two musical instruments Tambua and Tasa. The tubular Tambua drum is made of wood and has two surfaces covered with cowhide. The way to play is by putting a lanyard around the player's neck. In a standing position, the player hits using two pieces of rattan. The results of the research show that Genadang Tambua still exists at various events in West Sumatra. Tamua Gendang performances are still popular with the younger generation. Almost all parts of the region have a community of Genang Tambua players. The Genang Tambua festival event is a unique tradition held in each region. The GandangTambua craftsmen and performers community can improve the economy.

Author Keywords:-Gandang Tambua, Performance, Minangkabau, West Sumatra

Change of Nurse Religiosity Rate in Makassar Hospital
Nurmiati Muchlis, Arni Rizqiani Rusydi
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Objective: This study aims to determine changes in the level of religiosity of nursing staff in Makassar City Hospital for 1 year. Methodology: The study design was a cohort study. The study population is all non permanent nursing staff at Ibnu Sina Hospital, Faisal Islamic Hospital, and Haji Makassar General Hospital amounted to 78 nurses. Measurements were made to find out whether they had changed the religiosity of nursing staff particularly in the intellectual dimension (1 year later). Research location in Makassar City 2017 (Ibnu Sina Hospital, Faisal Islamic Hospital and Haji Makassar Hospital, with a research period of approximately 1 (one) year. Results: The results provide information that there is a change in the level of religiosity in several dimensions of religiosity. Experienced the greatest change at the level of the intellectual dimension.Increased improvement in the intellectual dimension. Conversely, there is a slight change of the consequential dimension. Conclusion: This research described that there was chage of experimental and ritual dimensions actually, a both of decreased. It is expected to the hospital management to keep actively improve and involve nurses on the program improvement of religiosity in the hospital.

Author Keywords:-change of religiosity, nurse, hospital

Lifelong Learning Readiness Level of Unemployed IPT Graduates in Malaysia According to Gender
Wan Siti Aisyah binti Wan Ibrahim, Jane anak Motal, Nur Zakiah Hani binti Kamarolzaman
Abstract       pdf Full text PDF

Lifelong learning (LPH) is a government effort in the implementation of continuous learning aimed at improving skills among the Malaysian population. Through lifelong learning, the country is able to produce a knowledgeable and highly skilled society. Accordingly, the National Economic Recovery Plan (PENJANA) was announced as one of the government's initiatives to improve the skills of graduates in addressing the challenge of the marketability of graduates of public universities, polytechnics, and community colleges throughout the country. This study aims to identify differences in lifelong learning readiness levels among Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak graduates according to gender. The study sample consisted of 79 respondents who were students of Sarawak Kuching Polytechnic in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Commerce, Department of Petrochemical Engineering, Department of Information and Communication Technology and Department of Mathematics, Science and Computer and were participants in the GENERATOR program KPT-CAP, which is a government initiative training program to increase the marketability of graduates. This study uses a survey research method that involves collecting information from respondents through a survey form using the Lifelong Learning Questionnaire [1] Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software to test differences using the t-test of two independent samples and the results were described in the form of mean and percentage tables. The five aspects studied are in terms of setting goals, increasing appropriate knowledge and skills, determining self-direction, searching for information and adapting learning strategies. The findings of the study found that there was no significant difference in the level of readiness for lifelong learning (PSH) among the graduates of Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak according to gender. Among the five aspects, only the self- determination aspect shows self-determination where the mean score of female graduates is 4.08, higher than the mean score of male graduates, which is 3.77. This shows that female graduates have a higher level of readiness for lifelong learning (PSH) than male graduates in determining their own direction. The relationship between the level of lifelong learning readiness and gender among students was measured using Pearson's correlation. The results found that only aspects of determining direction and self-evaluation have a weak relationship (r=0.24, p=0.02) between the level of readiness for lifelong learning and gender among Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak graduates. This study can be improved by further expanding the scope of sampling throughout Malaysia so that the government's initiative in spreading the importance of lifelong learning is more effective.

Author Keywords:-life long learning, graduate’s readiness, Politeknik Kuching Sarawak

Barriers Facing Girls’ in Accessing Equal Quality Education Opportunities: A Baseline Survey at Bugogwa and Shibula Wards in Ilemela District, Mwanza, Tanzania
Zena Ismail Machinda, Veneranda Paulo Byerengo
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This study sought to examine barriers facing girls’ access to equal quality education opportunities in Ilemela District, Tanzania. The study came up due to the existing data on increasing girls school dropout, early pregnancies and poor academic performance. The study adapted mixed research design to generate data through focus group discussion and questionnaires. The instruments were employed to 90 respondents. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The major findings show that, cultural beliefs, and patriarchal values were associated with girls’ barriers in accessing education whereby some cultures are still completely forbidden girls’ to access education. Furthermore, menstruation and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) experiencing in some areas like Mara, Mwanza, Dodoma regions in Tanzania. This cultural practice, although now illegal, but is still a common occurrence in communities. Other barriers are poverty, long distance to school, pregnancy, gender-based violence (GBV) sanitary pads, early marriage were common for girls’ not to access quality education. The study recommends that; communication, campaign, education, and advocacy at all levels of society are very important for changing gender and social norms. Additionally, providing safe transport to school, improve sanitary materials at school for girls to manage their menstruation and feel empowered to have full control over their bodies. Future, policies should be focusing on sending more girls to school while paying close attention not just to enrolment but also their attendance. In addition, the Government should revise the Marriage Policy of 1971 and ensure inclusive equitable quality education for all, especially girls and women by 2030.

Author Keywords:-barriers, girls, quality, education, Ilemela

Optimizing Power Balance and Communication links in Microgrids: A Clustering Approach Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Shiva Ourang, Armin Ourang
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Implementation of clustering techniques within electric power networks results in better reliability, self-healing, and controllability. This paper proposes a clustering technique in a microgrid with distributed energy resources to minimize power balance and communication time delays in each cluster. The automatic clustering algorithm is used to put the microgrid into several clusters and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to obtain the optimal number of clusters. The automatic clustering algorithm employs the assigned objectives, i.e., power balance and communication time delays, to find the optimum clustering within the microgrid. In addition, due to a better convergence, the forward-backward power flow method is used to determine the power balance in each zone. The simulation results are provided with and without employing the proposed algorithm using the Bornholm microgrid in Denmark. Based on the obtained results, communication time delays are improved significantly when employing the proposed algorithm. In addition, clustering a microgrid provides some extra favorable outcomes such as better reliability, self-healing, and fault clearance.

Author Keywords:-Micro-grid, clustering, automatic algorithm, communication system.